Using 3D-printed tungsten to optimize liquid metal divertor targets for flow and thermal stresses

P. Rindt (Corresponding author), J. Mata Gonzalez, P. Hoogerhuis, P. van den Bosch, M. van Maris, D. Terentyev, C. Yin, M. Wirtz, N.J. Lopes Cardozo, J.A.W. van Dommelen, T.W. Morgan

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Liquid metal divertors aim to provide a more robust alternative to conventional tungsten divertors. However, they still require a solid substrate to confine the liquid metal. This work proposes a novel design philosophy for liquid metal divertor targets, which allows for a two orders of magnitude reduction of thermal stresses compared to the state-of-the-art monoblock designs. The main principle is based on a 3D-printed tungsten structure, which has low connectedness in the direction perpendicular to the thermal gradient, and as a result also short length scales. This allows for thermal expansion. Voids in the structure are filled with liquid lithium which can conduct heat and reduce the surface temperature via vapor shielding, further suppressing thermal stresses. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this design strategy, an existing liquid metal concept is re-designed, fabricated, and tested on the linear plasma device Magnum-PSI. The thermo-mechanical finite element method analysis of the improved design matches the temperature response during the experiments, and indicates that thermal stresses are two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional monoblock designs. The relaxation of the strength requirement allows for much larger failure margins and consequently for many new design possibilities.
TaalEngels
Artikelnummer054001
Aantal pagina's6
TijdschriftNuclear Fusion
Volume59
Nummer van het tijdschrift5
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - mei 2019

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    @article{6ee7e1d0029848feb629bbff447d8439,
    title = "Using 3D-printed tungsten to optimize liquid metal divertor targets for flow and thermal stresses",
    abstract = "Liquid metal divertors aim to provide a more robust alternative to conventional tungsten divertors. However, they still require a solid substrate to confine the liquid metal. This work proposes a novel design philosophy for liquid metal divertor targets, which allows for a two orders of magnitude reduction of thermal stresses compared to the state-of-the-art monoblock designs. The main principle is based on a 3D-printed tungsten structure, which has low connectedness in the direction perpendicular to the thermal gradient, and as a result also short length scales. This allows for thermal expansion. Voids in the structure are filled with liquid lithium which can conduct heat and reduce the surface temperature via vapor shielding, further suppressing thermal stresses. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this design strategy, an existing liquid metal concept is re-designed, fabricated, and tested on the linear plasma device Magnum-PSI. The thermo-mechanical finite element method analysis of the improved design matches the temperature response during the experiments, and indicates that thermal stresses are two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional monoblock designs. The relaxation of the strength requirement allows for much larger failure margins and consequently for many new design possibilities.",
    keywords = "fusion, divertor, 3D-printing, tungsten, lithium, liquid metal, Magnum-PSI",
    author = "P. Rindt and {Mata Gonzalez}, J. and P. Hoogerhuis and {van den Bosch}, P. and {van Maris}, M. and D. Terentyev and C. Yin and M. Wirtz and Cardozo, {N.J. Lopes} and {van Dommelen}, J.A.W. and T.W. Morgan",
    year = "2019",
    month = "5",
    doi = "10.1088/1741-4326/ab0a76",
    language = "English",
    volume = "59",
    journal = "Nuclear Fusion",
    issn = "0029-5515",
    publisher = "Institute of Physics",
    number = "5",

    }

    Using 3D-printed tungsten to optimize liquid metal divertor targets for flow and thermal stresses. / Rindt, P. (Corresponding author); Mata Gonzalez, J.; Hoogerhuis, P.; van den Bosch, P.; van Maris, M.; Terentyev, D.; Yin, C.; Wirtz, M.; Cardozo, N.J. Lopes; van Dommelen, J.A.W.; Morgan, T.W.

    In: Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 59, Nr. 5, 054001, 05.2019.

    Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Using 3D-printed tungsten to optimize liquid metal divertor targets for flow and thermal stresses

    AU - Rindt,P.

    AU - Mata Gonzalez,J.

    AU - Hoogerhuis,P.

    AU - van den Bosch,P.

    AU - van Maris,M.

    AU - Terentyev,D.

    AU - Yin,C.

    AU - Wirtz,M.

    AU - Cardozo,N.J. Lopes

    AU - van Dommelen,J.A.W.

    AU - Morgan,T.W.

    PY - 2019/5

    Y1 - 2019/5

    N2 - Liquid metal divertors aim to provide a more robust alternative to conventional tungsten divertors. However, they still require a solid substrate to confine the liquid metal. This work proposes a novel design philosophy for liquid metal divertor targets, which allows for a two orders of magnitude reduction of thermal stresses compared to the state-of-the-art monoblock designs. The main principle is based on a 3D-printed tungsten structure, which has low connectedness in the direction perpendicular to the thermal gradient, and as a result also short length scales. This allows for thermal expansion. Voids in the structure are filled with liquid lithium which can conduct heat and reduce the surface temperature via vapor shielding, further suppressing thermal stresses. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this design strategy, an existing liquid metal concept is re-designed, fabricated, and tested on the linear plasma device Magnum-PSI. The thermo-mechanical finite element method analysis of the improved design matches the temperature response during the experiments, and indicates that thermal stresses are two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional monoblock designs. The relaxation of the strength requirement allows for much larger failure margins and consequently for many new design possibilities.

    AB - Liquid metal divertors aim to provide a more robust alternative to conventional tungsten divertors. However, they still require a solid substrate to confine the liquid metal. This work proposes a novel design philosophy for liquid metal divertor targets, which allows for a two orders of magnitude reduction of thermal stresses compared to the state-of-the-art monoblock designs. The main principle is based on a 3D-printed tungsten structure, which has low connectedness in the direction perpendicular to the thermal gradient, and as a result also short length scales. This allows for thermal expansion. Voids in the structure are filled with liquid lithium which can conduct heat and reduce the surface temperature via vapor shielding, further suppressing thermal stresses. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this design strategy, an existing liquid metal concept is re-designed, fabricated, and tested on the linear plasma device Magnum-PSI. The thermo-mechanical finite element method analysis of the improved design matches the temperature response during the experiments, and indicates that thermal stresses are two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional monoblock designs. The relaxation of the strength requirement allows for much larger failure margins and consequently for many new design possibilities.

    KW - fusion

    KW - divertor

    KW - 3D-printing

    KW - tungsten

    KW - lithium

    KW - liquid metal

    KW - Magnum-PSI

    U2 - 10.1088/1741-4326/ab0a76

    DO - 10.1088/1741-4326/ab0a76

    M3 - Article

    VL - 59

    JO - Nuclear Fusion

    T2 - Nuclear Fusion

    JF - Nuclear Fusion

    SN - 0029-5515

    IS - 5

    M1 - 054001

    ER -

    Rindt P, Mata Gonzalez J, Hoogerhuis P, van den Bosch P, van Maris M, Terentyev D et al. Using 3D-printed tungsten to optimize liquid metal divertor targets for flow and thermal stresses. Nuclear Fusion. 2019 mei;59(5). 054001. Beschikbaar vanaf, DOI: 10.1088/1741-4326/ab0a76