Background Fetal growth restriction (FGR), defined as an estimated fetal weight (EFW)<10th percentile, is associated with an increased risk for adverse fetal and neonatal outcome. Early antenatal diagnosis is important and remains challenging. Deformation changes in the fetal myocardium are early signs of myocardial dysfunction. These changes can be measured using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) to predict impaired placental function in the growth restricted fetus. Aim To review the literature on fetal heart deformation values measured with 2D-STE, in fetuses with an EFW< 10th centile and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses, and to compare the results in both groups. Methods The EMBASE, Medline, and Cochrane databases were searched from inception until April 2020. Observational studies on evaluating the cardiac deformation values longitudinal strain, strain rate, and/or global dyssynchrony of both ventricles in FGR, using 2D-STE, were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottowa risk of bias scale. Results Four studies met the inclusion criteria. The mean gestational age (GA) varied from 30 to 38 weeks in the FGR group and 20 to 40 weeks in AGA fetuses. The number of included FGR fetuses (with or without Doppler abnormalities), varied from 30 to 50. Longitudinal strain in FGR fetuses was described as comparable (n = 2), increased (n = 1) and>95th percentile (n = 1) compared to AGA fetuses. Strain rate was measured in two studies. One reported an increased strain rate, another showed comparable strain rate. Two studies addressed global left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) dyssynchrony. Dyssynchrony was increased in FGR compared to AGA fetuses. Conclusion The currently published data is limited and heterogeneous concerning GA and Doppler profiles. The data presentation and the interpretation thereof make qualitative comparisons impossible. Large prospective longitudinal cohort studies looking at the value of deformation measurements of the fetal heart in FGR and AGA fetuses are needed to assess the clinical significance of deformation values measured with 2D-STE.
|Tijdschrift||European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology|
|Vroegere onlinedatum||2 sep 2020|
|Status||E-publicatie vóór gedrukte publicatie - 2 sep 2020|
van Oostrum, N. H. M., Derks, K., van der Woude, D., Clur, S. A. B., Oei, S. G. G., & van Laar, J. O. E. H. (2020). Two-dimensional Speckle tracking echocardiography in Fetal Growth Restriction: a systematic review. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 254, 87-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.08.052