Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires

R.E. Algra, M.A. Verheijen, M.T. Borgström, L.F. Feiner, W.G.G. Immink, W.J.P. Enckevort, van, E. Vlieg, E.P.A.M. Bakkers

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518 Citaties (Scopus)

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Semiconducting nanowires offer the possibility of nearly unlimited complex bottom-up design, which allows for new device concepts. However, essential parameters that determine the electronic quality of the wires, and which have not been controlled yet for the III-V compound semiconductors, are the wire crystal structure and the stacking fault density. In addition, a significant feature would be to have a constant spacing between rotational twins in the wires such that a twinning superlattice is formed, as this is predicted to induce a direct bandgap in normally indirect bandgap semiconductors, such as silicon and gallium phosphide. Optically active versions of these technologically relevant semiconductors could have a significant impact on the electronics and optics industry. Here we show first that we can control the crystal structure of indium phosphide (InP) nanowires by using impurity dopants. We have found that zinc decreases the activation barrier for two-dimensional nucleation growth of zinc-blende InP and therefore promotes crystallization of the InP nanowires in the zinc-blende, instead of the commonly found wurtzite, crystal structure. More importantly, we then demonstrate that we can, once we have enforced the zinc-blende crystal structure, induce twinning superlattices with long-range order in InP nanowires. We can tune the spacing of the superlattices by changing the wire diameter and the zinc concentration, and we present a model based on the distortion of the catalyst droplet in response to the evolution of the cross-sectional shape of the nanowires to quantitatively explain the formation of the periodic twinning. ©2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. U7 - Export Date: 2 August 2010 U7 - Source: Scopus
TaalEngels
Pagina's369-372
Aantal pagina's4
TijdschriftNature
Volume456
Nummer van het tijdschrift7220
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 2008

Vingerafdruk

indium phosphides
twinning
superlattices
nanowires
zinc
wire
crystal structure
spacing
gallium phosphides
phosphides
electronics
crystal defects
wurtzite
industries
nucleation
activation
optics
crystallization
catalysts
impurities

Trefwoorden

    Citeer dit

    Algra, R. E., Verheijen, M. A., Borgström, M. T., Feiner, L. F., Immink, W. G. G., Enckevort, van, W. J. P., ... Bakkers, E. P. A. M. (2008). Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires. Nature, 456(7220), 369-372. DOI: 10.1038/nature07570
    Algra, R.E. ; Verheijen, M.A. ; Borgström, M.T. ; Feiner, L.F. ; Immink, W.G.G. ; Enckevort, van, W.J.P. ; Vlieg, E. ; Bakkers, E.P.A.M./ Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires. In: Nature. 2008 ; Vol. 456, Nr. 7220. blz. 369-372
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    title = "Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires",
    abstract = "Semiconducting nanowires offer the possibility of nearly unlimited complex bottom-up design, which allows for new device concepts. However, essential parameters that determine the electronic quality of the wires, and which have not been controlled yet for the III-V compound semiconductors, are the wire crystal structure and the stacking fault density. In addition, a significant feature would be to have a constant spacing between rotational twins in the wires such that a twinning superlattice is formed, as this is predicted to induce a direct bandgap in normally indirect bandgap semiconductors, such as silicon and gallium phosphide. Optically active versions of these technologically relevant semiconductors could have a significant impact on the electronics and optics industry. Here we show first that we can control the crystal structure of indium phosphide (InP) nanowires by using impurity dopants. We have found that zinc decreases the activation barrier for two-dimensional nucleation growth of zinc-blende InP and therefore promotes crystallization of the InP nanowires in the zinc-blende, instead of the commonly found wurtzite, crystal structure. More importantly, we then demonstrate that we can, once we have enforced the zinc-blende crystal structure, induce twinning superlattices with long-range order in InP nanowires. We can tune the spacing of the superlattices by changing the wire diameter and the zinc concentration, and we present a model based on the distortion of the catalyst droplet in response to the evolution of the cross-sectional shape of the nanowires to quantitatively explain the formation of the periodic twinning. {\circledC}2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. U7 - Export Date: 2 August 2010 U7 - Source: Scopus",
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    author = "R.E. Algra and M.A. Verheijen and M.T. Borgstr{\"o}m and L.F. Feiner and W.G.G. Immink and {Enckevort, van}, W.J.P. and E. Vlieg and E.P.A.M. Bakkers",
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    Algra, RE, Verheijen, MA, Borgström, MT, Feiner, LF, Immink, WGG, Enckevort, van, WJP, Vlieg, E & Bakkers, EPAM 2008, 'Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires' Nature, vol. 456, nr. 7220, blz. 369-372. DOI: 10.1038/nature07570

    Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires. / Algra, R.E.; Verheijen, M.A.; Borgström, M.T.; Feiner, L.F.; Immink, W.G.G.; Enckevort, van, W.J.P.; Vlieg, E.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    In: Nature, Vol. 456, Nr. 7220, 2008, blz. 369-372.

    Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires

    AU - Algra,R.E.

    AU - Verheijen,M.A.

    AU - Borgström,M.T.

    AU - Feiner,L.F.

    AU - Immink,W.G.G.

    AU - Enckevort, van,W.J.P.

    AU - Vlieg,E.

    AU - Bakkers,E.P.A.M.

    PY - 2008

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    N2 - Semiconducting nanowires offer the possibility of nearly unlimited complex bottom-up design, which allows for new device concepts. However, essential parameters that determine the electronic quality of the wires, and which have not been controlled yet for the III-V compound semiconductors, are the wire crystal structure and the stacking fault density. In addition, a significant feature would be to have a constant spacing between rotational twins in the wires such that a twinning superlattice is formed, as this is predicted to induce a direct bandgap in normally indirect bandgap semiconductors, such as silicon and gallium phosphide. Optically active versions of these technologically relevant semiconductors could have a significant impact on the electronics and optics industry. Here we show first that we can control the crystal structure of indium phosphide (InP) nanowires by using impurity dopants. We have found that zinc decreases the activation barrier for two-dimensional nucleation growth of zinc-blende InP and therefore promotes crystallization of the InP nanowires in the zinc-blende, instead of the commonly found wurtzite, crystal structure. More importantly, we then demonstrate that we can, once we have enforced the zinc-blende crystal structure, induce twinning superlattices with long-range order in InP nanowires. We can tune the spacing of the superlattices by changing the wire diameter and the zinc concentration, and we present a model based on the distortion of the catalyst droplet in response to the evolution of the cross-sectional shape of the nanowires to quantitatively explain the formation of the periodic twinning. ©2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. U7 - Export Date: 2 August 2010 U7 - Source: Scopus

    AB - Semiconducting nanowires offer the possibility of nearly unlimited complex bottom-up design, which allows for new device concepts. However, essential parameters that determine the electronic quality of the wires, and which have not been controlled yet for the III-V compound semiconductors, are the wire crystal structure and the stacking fault density. In addition, a significant feature would be to have a constant spacing between rotational twins in the wires such that a twinning superlattice is formed, as this is predicted to induce a direct bandgap in normally indirect bandgap semiconductors, such as silicon and gallium phosphide. Optically active versions of these technologically relevant semiconductors could have a significant impact on the electronics and optics industry. Here we show first that we can control the crystal structure of indium phosphide (InP) nanowires by using impurity dopants. We have found that zinc decreases the activation barrier for two-dimensional nucleation growth of zinc-blende InP and therefore promotes crystallization of the InP nanowires in the zinc-blende, instead of the commonly found wurtzite, crystal structure. More importantly, we then demonstrate that we can, once we have enforced the zinc-blende crystal structure, induce twinning superlattices with long-range order in InP nanowires. We can tune the spacing of the superlattices by changing the wire diameter and the zinc concentration, and we present a model based on the distortion of the catalyst droplet in response to the evolution of the cross-sectional shape of the nanowires to quantitatively explain the formation of the periodic twinning. ©2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. U7 - Export Date: 2 August 2010 U7 - Source: Scopus

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    DO - 10.1038/nature07570

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    Algra RE, Verheijen MA, Borgström MT, Feiner LF, Immink WGG, Enckevort, van WJP et al. Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires. Nature. 2008;456(7220):369-372. Beschikbaar vanaf, DOI: 10.1038/nature07570