Three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) is applied to particle-laden pipe flows at Reynolds number 10,300, based on the bulk velocity and the pipe diameter. The effects of flow direction (upward or downward) and mean concentration (in the range 0.5 × 10-5–3.2 × 10-5) on the production of turbulence are assessed for inertial particles with a Stokes number equal to 2.3, based on the particle relaxation time and viscous scales. The turbulence production and the Kolmogorov constant, both measured for particle laden flows in upflow and downflow, allowed for the derivation of a break-up criterion as a function of the radial coordinate. This criterion predicts the maximum possible particle size before break-up may occur. It is shown that the maximum particle size is bigger at the pipe centerline than in the near-wall zone by more than a factor of 5. Flow direction affects the particle concentration profile, with wall peaking in downflow and core peaking in upflow. This affects both the residence time and the maximum particle size, the latter by 7%.
|Tijdschrift||International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow|
|Status||Gepubliceerd - 2015|