Three-body spin mixing in spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates

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We study zero-energy collisions between three identical bosons with spin $f = 1$ interacting via pairwise potentials. We quantify the corresponding three-body scattering hypervolumes, which parametrize the effective three-body interaction strengths in a many-body description of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates. Our results demonstrate universal behavior of the scattering hypervolumes for strong $s$- and $p$-wave two-body interactions. At weak interactions we find that the real parts of the scattering hypervolumes are predominantly determined by hard-hyperspherelike collisions which we characterize by a simple formula. With this universal result we estimate that spin mixing via three-body collisions starts to dominate over two-body spin mixing at a typical particle density of $10^{17}~\mathrm{cm}^{-3}$ for ${}^{23}$Na and ${}^{41}$K spinor condensates. This density can be reduced by tuning the two-body interactions to an $s$- or $p$-wave dimer resonance or to a point where two-body spin mixing effectively vanishes. Another possibility to observe effects of three-body spin mixing involves the application of weak magnetic fields to cancel out the effective two-body interaction strength in the characteristic timescale describing the spin dynamics.
Originele taal-2Engels
Aantal pagina's18
StatusGepubliceerd - 10 mei 2021

Bibliografische nota

18 pages, 6 figures


  • cond-mat.quant-gas
  • physics.atom-ph


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