The formation of the impurity phase in materials containing nanopores is investigated theoretically. The formation of impurity clusters on the inner surface of pores is studied using the thermodynamic approach. The most advantageous states of metal impurities in silicon are determined, and comparison with available experimental data is carried out. The possibility of the formation of cobalt nanoclusters in subsurface cavities in copper is substantiated theoretically.
Lubov, M. N., Kulikov, D. V., Trushin, Y. V., & Kurnosikov, O. (2013). Theoretical analysis of the formation of impurity precipitates in nanocavities I. Thermodynamic analysis. Technical Physics, 58, 42-49. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1063784213010179