Objective. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has the potential to improve radiographic progression determination in clinical trials and longitudinal observational studies. The goal of this work was to describe the current state of research presented at Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 2016 and ensuing future directions outlined during discussion among attendees. Methods. At OMERACT 2016, SPECTRA (Study grouP for xtrEme-Computed Tomography in Rheumatoid Arthritis) introduced efforts to (1) validate the HR-pQCT according to OMERACT guidelines, focusing on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and (2) find alternatives for automated joint space width (JSW) analysis. The Special Interest Group (SIG) was presented to patient research partners, physicians/ researchers, and SIG leaders followed by a 40-min discussion on future directions. Results. A consensus definition for RA erosion using HR-pQCT was demonstrated through a systematic literature review and a Delphi exercise. Histopathology and perfusion studies were presented that analyzed the true characteristics of cortical breaks in HR-pQCT images, and to provide criterion validity. Results indicate that readers were able to discriminate between erosion and small vascular channels. Moderate reliability (ICC 0.206-0.871) of direct erosion size measures was shown, which improved (> 0.9) only when experienced readers were considered. Quantification of erosion size was presented for scoring, direct measurement, and volumetric approaches, as well as a reliability exercise for direct measurement. Three methods for JSW measurement were compared, all indicating excellent reproducibility with differences at the extremes (i.e., near-zero and joint edge thickness). Conclusion. Initial reports on HR-pQCT are promising; however, to consider its use in clinical trials and longitudinal observational studies, it is imperative to assess the responsiveness of erosion measurement quantification.