Te incorporation and activation as n-type dopant in self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires

Teemu Valtteri Hakkarainen (Corresponding author), Marcelo Rizzo Piton, Elisabetta Maria Fiordaliso, Egor D. Leshchenko, Sebastian Koelling, Jefferson Bettini, Helder Vinicius Avanço Galeti, Eero Koivusalo, Yara Galvaõ Gobato, Ariano de Giovanni Rodrigues, Donald Lupo, Paul M. Koenraad, Edson Roberto Leite, Vladimir G. Dubrovskii, Mircea Guina

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Uittreksel

Dopant atoms can be incorporated into nanowires either via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism through the catalyst droplet or by the vapor-solid growth on the sidewalls. Si is a typical n-type dopant for GaAs, but in nanowires it often suffers from a strongly amphoteric nature in the vapor-liquid-solid process. This issue can be avoided by using Te, which is a promising but less common alternative for n-type doping of GaAs nanowires. Here, we present a detailed investigation of Te-doped self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires. We use several complementary experimental techniques, such as atom probe tomography, off-axis electron holography, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and single-nanowire transport characterization, to assess the Te concentration, the free-electron concentration, and the built-in potential in Te-doped GaAs nanowires. By combing the experimental results with a theoretical model, we show that Te atoms are mainly incorporated by the vapor-liquid-solid process through the Ga droplet, which leads to both axial and radial dopant gradients due to Te diffusion inside the nanowires and competition between axial elongation and radial growth of nanowires. Furthermore, by comparing the free-electron concentration from Raman spectroscopy and the Te-atom concentrations from atom probe tomography, we show that the activation of Te donor atoms is 100% at a doping level of 4×1018cm-3, which is a significant result in terms of future device applications.

TaalEngels
Artikelnummer086001
Aantal pagina's12
TijdschriftPhysical Review Materials
Volume3
Nummer van het tijdschrift8
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 5 aug 2019

Vingerafdruk

Nanowires
nanowires
Chemical activation
Doping (additives)
activation
Atoms
Vapors
vapors
atoms
free electrons
Tomography
Raman spectroscopy
Liquids
liquids
tomography
Electron holography
atom concentration
gallium arsenide
Electrons
probes

Citeer dit

Hakkarainen, T. V., Rizzo Piton, M., Fiordaliso, E. M., Leshchenko, E. D., Koelling, S., Bettini, J., ... Guina, M. (2019). Te incorporation and activation as n-type dopant in self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires. Physical Review Materials, 3(8), [086001]. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.3.086001
Hakkarainen, Teemu Valtteri ; Rizzo Piton, Marcelo ; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria ; Leshchenko, Egor D. ; Koelling, Sebastian ; Bettini, Jefferson ; Vinicius Avanço Galeti, Helder ; Koivusalo, Eero ; Gobato, Yara Galvaõ ; de Giovanni Rodrigues, Ariano ; Lupo, Donald ; Koenraad, Paul M. ; Leite, Edson Roberto ; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G. ; Guina, Mircea. / Te incorporation and activation as n-type dopant in self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires. In: Physical Review Materials. 2019 ; Vol. 3, Nr. 8.
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abstract = "Dopant atoms can be incorporated into nanowires either via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism through the catalyst droplet or by the vapor-solid growth on the sidewalls. Si is a typical n-type dopant for GaAs, but in nanowires it often suffers from a strongly amphoteric nature in the vapor-liquid-solid process. This issue can be avoided by using Te, which is a promising but less common alternative for n-type doping of GaAs nanowires. Here, we present a detailed investigation of Te-doped self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires. We use several complementary experimental techniques, such as atom probe tomography, off-axis electron holography, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and single-nanowire transport characterization, to assess the Te concentration, the free-electron concentration, and the built-in potential in Te-doped GaAs nanowires. By combing the experimental results with a theoretical model, we show that Te atoms are mainly incorporated by the vapor-liquid-solid process through the Ga droplet, which leads to both axial and radial dopant gradients due to Te diffusion inside the nanowires and competition between axial elongation and radial growth of nanowires. Furthermore, by comparing the free-electron concentration from Raman spectroscopy and the Te-atom concentrations from atom probe tomography, we show that the activation of Te donor atoms is 100{\%} at a doping level of 4×1018cm-3, which is a significant result in terms of future device applications.",
author = "Hakkarainen, {Teemu Valtteri} and {Rizzo Piton}, Marcelo and Fiordaliso, {Elisabetta Maria} and Leshchenko, {Egor D.} and Sebastian Koelling and Jefferson Bettini and {Vinicius Avan{\cc}o Galeti}, Helder and Eero Koivusalo and Gobato, {Yara Galva{\~o}} and {de Giovanni Rodrigues}, Ariano and Donald Lupo and Koenraad, {Paul M.} and Leite, {Edson Roberto} and Dubrovskii, {Vladimir G.} and Mircea Guina",
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Hakkarainen, TV, Rizzo Piton, M, Fiordaliso, EM, Leshchenko, ED, Koelling, S, Bettini, J, Vinicius Avanço Galeti, H, Koivusalo, E, Gobato, YG, de Giovanni Rodrigues, A, Lupo, D, Koenraad, PM, Leite, ER, Dubrovskii, VG & Guina, M 2019, 'Te incorporation and activation as n-type dopant in self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires' Physical Review Materials, vol. 3, nr. 8, 086001. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.3.086001

Te incorporation and activation as n-type dopant in self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires. / Hakkarainen, Teemu Valtteri (Corresponding author); Rizzo Piton, Marcelo; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria; Leshchenko, Egor D.; Koelling, Sebastian; Bettini, Jefferson; Vinicius Avanço Galeti, Helder; Koivusalo, Eero; Gobato, Yara Galvaõ; de Giovanni Rodrigues, Ariano; Lupo, Donald; Koenraad, Paul M.; Leite, Edson Roberto; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.; Guina, Mircea.

In: Physical Review Materials, Vol. 3, Nr. 8, 086001, 05.08.2019.

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Te incorporation and activation as n-type dopant in self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires

AU - Hakkarainen,Teemu Valtteri

AU - Rizzo Piton,Marcelo

AU - Fiordaliso,Elisabetta Maria

AU - Leshchenko,Egor D.

AU - Koelling,Sebastian

AU - Bettini,Jefferson

AU - Vinicius Avanço Galeti,Helder

AU - Koivusalo,Eero

AU - Gobato,Yara Galvaõ

AU - de Giovanni Rodrigues,Ariano

AU - Lupo,Donald

AU - Koenraad,Paul M.

AU - Leite,Edson Roberto

AU - Dubrovskii,Vladimir G.

AU - Guina,Mircea

PY - 2019/8/5

Y1 - 2019/8/5

N2 - Dopant atoms can be incorporated into nanowires either via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism through the catalyst droplet or by the vapor-solid growth on the sidewalls. Si is a typical n-type dopant for GaAs, but in nanowires it often suffers from a strongly amphoteric nature in the vapor-liquid-solid process. This issue can be avoided by using Te, which is a promising but less common alternative for n-type doping of GaAs nanowires. Here, we present a detailed investigation of Te-doped self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires. We use several complementary experimental techniques, such as atom probe tomography, off-axis electron holography, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and single-nanowire transport characterization, to assess the Te concentration, the free-electron concentration, and the built-in potential in Te-doped GaAs nanowires. By combing the experimental results with a theoretical model, we show that Te atoms are mainly incorporated by the vapor-liquid-solid process through the Ga droplet, which leads to both axial and radial dopant gradients due to Te diffusion inside the nanowires and competition between axial elongation and radial growth of nanowires. Furthermore, by comparing the free-electron concentration from Raman spectroscopy and the Te-atom concentrations from atom probe tomography, we show that the activation of Te donor atoms is 100% at a doping level of 4×1018cm-3, which is a significant result in terms of future device applications.

AB - Dopant atoms can be incorporated into nanowires either via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism through the catalyst droplet or by the vapor-solid growth on the sidewalls. Si is a typical n-type dopant for GaAs, but in nanowires it often suffers from a strongly amphoteric nature in the vapor-liquid-solid process. This issue can be avoided by using Te, which is a promising but less common alternative for n-type doping of GaAs nanowires. Here, we present a detailed investigation of Te-doped self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires. We use several complementary experimental techniques, such as atom probe tomography, off-axis electron holography, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and single-nanowire transport characterization, to assess the Te concentration, the free-electron concentration, and the built-in potential in Te-doped GaAs nanowires. By combing the experimental results with a theoretical model, we show that Te atoms are mainly incorporated by the vapor-liquid-solid process through the Ga droplet, which leads to both axial and radial dopant gradients due to Te diffusion inside the nanowires and competition between axial elongation and radial growth of nanowires. Furthermore, by comparing the free-electron concentration from Raman spectroscopy and the Te-atom concentrations from atom probe tomography, we show that the activation of Te donor atoms is 100% at a doping level of 4×1018cm-3, which is a significant result in terms of future device applications.

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Hakkarainen TV, Rizzo Piton M, Fiordaliso EM, Leshchenko ED, Koelling S, Bettini J et al. Te incorporation and activation as n-type dopant in self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires. Physical Review Materials. 2019 aug 5;3(8). 086001. Beschikbaar vanaf, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.3.086001