Synthesis of doped, ternary, and quaternary materials by atomic layer deposition: a review

Adrie Mackus, J.R. Schneider, C. MacIsaac, J.G. Baker, Stacey F. Bent (Corresponding author)

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

10 Citaties (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)

Uittreksel

In the past decade, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has become an important thin film deposition technique for applications in nanoelectronics, catalysis, and other areas due to its high conformality on 3-D nanostructured substrates and control of the film thickness at the atomic level. The current applications of ALD primarily involve binary metal oxides, but for new applications there is increasing interest in more complex materials such as doped, ternary, and quaternary materials. This article reviews how these multicomponent materials can be synthesized by ALD, gives an overview of the materials that have been reported in the literature to date, and discusses important challenges. The most commonly employed approach to synthesize these materials is to combine binary ALD cycles in a supercycle, which provides the ability to control the composition of the material by choosing the cycle ratio. Discussion will focus on four main topics: (i) the characteristics, benefits, and drawbacks of the approaches that currently exist for the synthesis of multicomponent materials, with special attention to the supercycle approach; (ii) the trends in precursor choice, process conditions, and characterization methods, as well as underlying motivations for these design decisions; (iii) the distribution of atoms in the deposited material and the formation of specific (crystalline) phases, which is shown to be dependent on the ALD cycle sequence, deposition temperature, and post-deposition anneal conditions; and (iv) the nucleation effects that occur when switching from one binary ALD process to another, with different explanations provided for why the growth characteristics often deviate from what is expected. This paper provides insight into how the deposition conditions (cycle sequence, temperature, etc.) affect the properties of the resultant thin films, which can serve as a guideline for designing new ALD processes. Furthermore, with an extensive discussion on the nucleation effects taking place during the growth of ternary materials, we hope to contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the ALD growth of multicomponent materials.
Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)1142-1183
Aantal pagina's42
TijdschriftChemistry of Materials
Volume31
Nummer van het tijdschrift4
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 26 feb 2019

Vingerafdruk

Atomic layer deposition
Nucleation
Thin films
Nanoelectronics
Oxides
Catalysis
Film thickness
Metals
Crystalline materials
Atoms
Temperature

Citeer dit

Mackus, Adrie ; Schneider, J.R. ; MacIsaac, C. ; Baker, J.G. ; Bent, Stacey F. / Synthesis of doped, ternary, and quaternary materials by atomic layer deposition: a review. In: Chemistry of Materials. 2019 ; Vol. 31, Nr. 4. blz. 1142-1183.
@article{87305e7eb11045688fce59dd6a5f260c,
title = "Synthesis of doped, ternary, and quaternary materials by atomic layer deposition: a review",
abstract = "In the past decade, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has become an important thin film deposition technique for applications in nanoelectronics, catalysis, and other areas due to its high conformality on 3-D nanostructured substrates and control of the film thickness at the atomic level. The current applications of ALD primarily involve binary metal oxides, but for new applications there is increasing interest in more complex materials such as doped, ternary, and quaternary materials. This article reviews how these multicomponent materials can be synthesized by ALD, gives an overview of the materials that have been reported in the literature to date, and discusses important challenges. The most commonly employed approach to synthesize these materials is to combine binary ALD cycles in a supercycle, which provides the ability to control the composition of the material by choosing the cycle ratio. Discussion will focus on four main topics: (i) the characteristics, benefits, and drawbacks of the approaches that currently exist for the synthesis of multicomponent materials, with special attention to the supercycle approach; (ii) the trends in precursor choice, process conditions, and characterization methods, as well as underlying motivations for these design decisions; (iii) the distribution of atoms in the deposited material and the formation of specific (crystalline) phases, which is shown to be dependent on the ALD cycle sequence, deposition temperature, and post-deposition anneal conditions; and (iv) the nucleation effects that occur when switching from one binary ALD process to another, with different explanations provided for why the growth characteristics often deviate from what is expected. This paper provides insight into how the deposition conditions (cycle sequence, temperature, etc.) affect the properties of the resultant thin films, which can serve as a guideline for designing new ALD processes. Furthermore, with an extensive discussion on the nucleation effects taking place during the growth of ternary materials, we hope to contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the ALD growth of multicomponent materials.",
author = "Adrie Mackus and J.R. Schneider and C. MacIsaac and J.G. Baker and Bent, {Stacey F.}",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
day = "26",
doi = "10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b02878",
language = "English",
volume = "31",
pages = "1142--1183",
journal = "Chemistry of Materials",
issn = "0897-4756",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "4",

}

Synthesis of doped, ternary, and quaternary materials by atomic layer deposition: a review. / Mackus, Adrie; Schneider, J.R.; MacIsaac, C. ; Baker, J.G. ; Bent, Stacey F. (Corresponding author).

In: Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 31, Nr. 4, 26.02.2019, blz. 1142-1183.

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Synthesis of doped, ternary, and quaternary materials by atomic layer deposition: a review

AU - Mackus, Adrie

AU - Schneider, J.R.

AU - MacIsaac, C.

AU - Baker, J.G.

AU - Bent, Stacey F.

PY - 2019/2/26

Y1 - 2019/2/26

N2 - In the past decade, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has become an important thin film deposition technique for applications in nanoelectronics, catalysis, and other areas due to its high conformality on 3-D nanostructured substrates and control of the film thickness at the atomic level. The current applications of ALD primarily involve binary metal oxides, but for new applications there is increasing interest in more complex materials such as doped, ternary, and quaternary materials. This article reviews how these multicomponent materials can be synthesized by ALD, gives an overview of the materials that have been reported in the literature to date, and discusses important challenges. The most commonly employed approach to synthesize these materials is to combine binary ALD cycles in a supercycle, which provides the ability to control the composition of the material by choosing the cycle ratio. Discussion will focus on four main topics: (i) the characteristics, benefits, and drawbacks of the approaches that currently exist for the synthesis of multicomponent materials, with special attention to the supercycle approach; (ii) the trends in precursor choice, process conditions, and characterization methods, as well as underlying motivations for these design decisions; (iii) the distribution of atoms in the deposited material and the formation of specific (crystalline) phases, which is shown to be dependent on the ALD cycle sequence, deposition temperature, and post-deposition anneal conditions; and (iv) the nucleation effects that occur when switching from one binary ALD process to another, with different explanations provided for why the growth characteristics often deviate from what is expected. This paper provides insight into how the deposition conditions (cycle sequence, temperature, etc.) affect the properties of the resultant thin films, which can serve as a guideline for designing new ALD processes. Furthermore, with an extensive discussion on the nucleation effects taking place during the growth of ternary materials, we hope to contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the ALD growth of multicomponent materials.

AB - In the past decade, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has become an important thin film deposition technique for applications in nanoelectronics, catalysis, and other areas due to its high conformality on 3-D nanostructured substrates and control of the film thickness at the atomic level. The current applications of ALD primarily involve binary metal oxides, but for new applications there is increasing interest in more complex materials such as doped, ternary, and quaternary materials. This article reviews how these multicomponent materials can be synthesized by ALD, gives an overview of the materials that have been reported in the literature to date, and discusses important challenges. The most commonly employed approach to synthesize these materials is to combine binary ALD cycles in a supercycle, which provides the ability to control the composition of the material by choosing the cycle ratio. Discussion will focus on four main topics: (i) the characteristics, benefits, and drawbacks of the approaches that currently exist for the synthesis of multicomponent materials, with special attention to the supercycle approach; (ii) the trends in precursor choice, process conditions, and characterization methods, as well as underlying motivations for these design decisions; (iii) the distribution of atoms in the deposited material and the formation of specific (crystalline) phases, which is shown to be dependent on the ALD cycle sequence, deposition temperature, and post-deposition anneal conditions; and (iv) the nucleation effects that occur when switching from one binary ALD process to another, with different explanations provided for why the growth characteristics often deviate from what is expected. This paper provides insight into how the deposition conditions (cycle sequence, temperature, etc.) affect the properties of the resultant thin films, which can serve as a guideline for designing new ALD processes. Furthermore, with an extensive discussion on the nucleation effects taking place during the growth of ternary materials, we hope to contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the ALD growth of multicomponent materials.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85060162453&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b02878

DO - 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b02878

M3 - Article

VL - 31

SP - 1142

EP - 1183

JO - Chemistry of Materials

JF - Chemistry of Materials

SN - 0897-4756

IS - 4

ER -