Sub-micrometer structure formation during spin coating revealed by time-resolved in situ laser and X-ray scattering

J.J. van Franeker, D. Hermida-Merino, C. Gommes, K. Arapov, J.J. Michels, R.A.J. Janssen, G. Portale

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

9 Citaties (Scopus)

Uittreksel

Solution-processed thin polymer films have many applications, such as organic electronics and block-copolymer nanofabrication. These films are often made by spin coating a solution that contains one or more solids and can show different phase-separated structures. The formation mechanism of the droplet-like morphology is studied here by processing polystyrene (PS) and a fullerene derivative ([6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester, [70]PCBM) from o-xylene. The final structure consists of [70]PCBM droplets partially embedded in a PS-rich matrix showing interdomain distance of 100–1000 nm as determined from transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). To elucidate the formation of these morphologies in real time, ultrafast in situ GISAXS coupled with laser interferometry and laser scattering is performed during spin coating. In situ thickness measurements and laser scattering show that liquid–liquid phase separation occurs at ≈70 vol% solvent. Subsequently, in only 100–400 ms, almost dry [70]PCBM domains start to protrude from the swollen PS-rich matrix. These results are used to verify the ternary phase diagram calculated using Flory–Huggins theory. The discussed multitechnique approach can be applied to study fundamental aspects in soft matter such as phase separation in thin films occurring at very short time scales.

TaalEngels
Artikelnummer1702516
Aantal pagina's12
TijdschriftAdvanced Functional Materials
Volume27
Nummer van het tijdschrift46
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 8 dec 2017

Vingerafdruk

Polystyrenes
Spin coating
X ray scattering
coating
micrometers
Phase separation
polystyrene
Lasers
scattering
grazing incidence
Scattering
Fullerenes
Laser interferometry
lasers
Thin films
Thickness measurement
x rays
Butyric acid
Butyric Acid
Liquids

Trefwoorden

    Citeer dit

    van Franeker, J. J., Hermida-Merino, D., Gommes, C., Arapov, K., Michels, J. J., Janssen, R. A. J., & Portale, G. (2017). Sub-micrometer structure formation during spin coating revealed by time-resolved in situ laser and X-ray scattering. Advanced Functional Materials, 27(46), [1702516]. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702516
    van Franeker, J.J. ; Hermida-Merino, D. ; Gommes, C. ; Arapov, K. ; Michels, J.J. ; Janssen, R.A.J. ; Portale, G./ Sub-micrometer structure formation during spin coating revealed by time-resolved in situ laser and X-ray scattering. In: Advanced Functional Materials. 2017 ; Vol. 27, Nr. 46.
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    abstract = "Solution-processed thin polymer films have many applications, such as organic electronics and block-copolymer nanofabrication. These films are often made by spin coating a solution that contains one or more solids and can show different phase-separated structures. The formation mechanism of the droplet-like morphology is studied here by processing polystyrene (PS) and a fullerene derivative ([6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester, [70]PCBM) from o-xylene. The final structure consists of [70]PCBM droplets partially embedded in a PS-rich matrix showing interdomain distance of 100–1000 nm as determined from transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). To elucidate the formation of these morphologies in real time, ultrafast in situ GISAXS coupled with laser interferometry and laser scattering is performed during spin coating. In situ thickness measurements and laser scattering show that liquid–liquid phase separation occurs at ≈70 vol{\%} solvent. Subsequently, in only 100–400 ms, almost dry [70]PCBM domains start to protrude from the swollen PS-rich matrix. These results are used to verify the ternary phase diagram calculated using Flory–Huggins theory. The discussed multitechnique approach can be applied to study fundamental aspects in soft matter such as phase separation in thin films occurring at very short time scales.",
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    van Franeker, JJ, Hermida-Merino, D, Gommes, C, Arapov, K, Michels, JJ, Janssen, RAJ & Portale, G 2017, 'Sub-micrometer structure formation during spin coating revealed by time-resolved in situ laser and X-ray scattering' Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 27, nr. 46, 1702516. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702516

    Sub-micrometer structure formation during spin coating revealed by time-resolved in situ laser and X-ray scattering. / van Franeker, J.J.; Hermida-Merino, D.; Gommes, C.; Arapov, K.; Michels, J.J.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Portale, G.

    In: Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 27, Nr. 46, 1702516, 08.12.2017.

    Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

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    T1 - Sub-micrometer structure formation during spin coating revealed by time-resolved in situ laser and X-ray scattering

    AU - van Franeker,J.J.

    AU - Hermida-Merino,D.

    AU - Gommes,C.

    AU - Arapov,K.

    AU - Michels,J.J.

    AU - Janssen,R.A.J.

    AU - Portale,G.

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    N2 - Solution-processed thin polymer films have many applications, such as organic electronics and block-copolymer nanofabrication. These films are often made by spin coating a solution that contains one or more solids and can show different phase-separated structures. The formation mechanism of the droplet-like morphology is studied here by processing polystyrene (PS) and a fullerene derivative ([6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester, [70]PCBM) from o-xylene. The final structure consists of [70]PCBM droplets partially embedded in a PS-rich matrix showing interdomain distance of 100–1000 nm as determined from transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). To elucidate the formation of these morphologies in real time, ultrafast in situ GISAXS coupled with laser interferometry and laser scattering is performed during spin coating. In situ thickness measurements and laser scattering show that liquid–liquid phase separation occurs at ≈70 vol% solvent. Subsequently, in only 100–400 ms, almost dry [70]PCBM domains start to protrude from the swollen PS-rich matrix. These results are used to verify the ternary phase diagram calculated using Flory–Huggins theory. The discussed multitechnique approach can be applied to study fundamental aspects in soft matter such as phase separation in thin films occurring at very short time scales.

    AB - Solution-processed thin polymer films have many applications, such as organic electronics and block-copolymer nanofabrication. These films are often made by spin coating a solution that contains one or more solids and can show different phase-separated structures. The formation mechanism of the droplet-like morphology is studied here by processing polystyrene (PS) and a fullerene derivative ([6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester, [70]PCBM) from o-xylene. The final structure consists of [70]PCBM droplets partially embedded in a PS-rich matrix showing interdomain distance of 100–1000 nm as determined from transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). To elucidate the formation of these morphologies in real time, ultrafast in situ GISAXS coupled with laser interferometry and laser scattering is performed during spin coating. In situ thickness measurements and laser scattering show that liquid–liquid phase separation occurs at ≈70 vol% solvent. Subsequently, in only 100–400 ms, almost dry [70]PCBM domains start to protrude from the swollen PS-rich matrix. These results are used to verify the ternary phase diagram calculated using Flory–Huggins theory. The discussed multitechnique approach can be applied to study fundamental aspects in soft matter such as phase separation in thin films occurring at very short time scales.

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    van Franeker JJ, Hermida-Merino D, Gommes C, Arapov K, Michels JJ, Janssen RAJ et al. Sub-micrometer structure formation during spin coating revealed by time-resolved in situ laser and X-ray scattering. Advanced Functional Materials. 2017 dec 8;27(46). 1702516. Beschikbaar vanaf, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702516