Solving weighted and counting variants of connectivity problems parameterized by treewidth deterministically in single exponential time

H.L. Bodlaender, M. Cygan, S. Kratsch, J. Nederlof

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It is well known that many local graph problems, like Vertex Cover and Dominating Set, can be solved in 2^{O(tw)}|V|^{O(1)} time for graphs G=(V,E) with a given tree decomposition of width tw. However, for nonlocal problems, like the fundamental class of connectivity problems, for a long time we did not know how to do this faster than tw^{O(tw)}|V|^{O(1)}. Recently, Cygan et al. (FOCS 2011) presented Monte Carlo algorithms for a wide range of connectivity problems running in time $c^{tw}|V|^{O(1)} for a small constant c, e.g., for Hamiltonian Cycle and Steiner tree. Naturally, this raises the question whether randomization is necessary to achieve this runtime; furthermore, it is desirable to also solve counting and weighted versions (the latter without incurring a pseudo-polynomial cost in terms of the weights). We present two new approaches rooted in linear algebra, based on matrix rank and determinants, which provide deterministic c^{tw}|V|^{O(1)} time algorithms, also for weighted and counting versions. For example, in this time we can solve the traveling salesman problem or count the number of Hamiltonian cycles. The rank-based ideas provide a rather general approach for speeding up even straightforward dynamic programming formulations by identifying "small" sets of representative partial solutions; we focus on the case of expressing connectivity via sets of partitions, but the essential ideas should have further applications. The determinant-based approach uses the matrix tree theorem for deriving closed formulas for counting versions of connectivity problems; we show how to evaluate those formulas via dynamic programming.
Originele taal-2Engels
TijdschriftarXiv
StatusGepubliceerd - 7 nov. 2012
Extern gepubliceerdJa

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36 pages

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