The restructuring of a silver catalyst during ethylene epoxidation under industrially relevant conditions was investigated without and with vinyl chloride (VC) promotion. During non-VC-promoted ethylene epoxidation, the silver particles grow and voids are formed at the surface and in the bulk. Electron tomography highlighted the presence of voids below the Ag surface. A mechanism is proposed involving reconstruction of the silver lattice and defect sites induced by oxygen adsorption on the external surface and grain boundaries, which finally create pores. Promotion of the catalytic reaction by VC suppresses to a significant extent void formation. The use of VC also redisperses silver particles, initially grown during ethylene epoxidation without VC. This process is rapid as the average size decreased from 172 to 136 nm within 2 h. These insights emphasize the dynamic nature of the silver particles during the ongoing ethylene epoxidation reaction and indicate that particle size and morphology strongly depend on reaction conditions.