Non-oxidative dehydroaromatization is arguably the most promising process for the direct upgrading of cheap and abundant methane to liquid hydrocarbons. This reaction has not been commercialized yet because of the suboptimal activity and swift deactivation of benchmark Mo-zeolite catalysts. This progress report represents an elaboration on the recent developments in understanding of zeolite-based catalytic materials for high-temperature non-oxidative dehydroaromatization of methane. It is specifically focused on recent studies, relevant to the materials chemistry and elucidating i) the structure of active species in working catalysts; ii) the complex molecular pathways underlying the mechanism of selective conversion of methane to benzene; iii) structure, evolution and role of coke species; and iv) process intensification strategies to improve the deactivation resistance and overall performance of the catalysts. Finally, unsolved challenges in this field of research are outlined and an outlook is provided on promising directions toward improving the activity, stability, and selectivity of methane dehydroaromatization catalysts.