Quantitative 3D fluorescence imaging of single catalytic turnovers reveals spatio-temporal gradients in reactivity of zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals upon steaming

Z. Ristanovic, J.P. Hofmann, G. De Cremer, A.V. Kubarev, M. Rohnke, F. Meirer, J. Hofkens, M.B.J. Roeffaers, B.M. Weckhuysen

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Samenvatting

Optimizing the number, distribution, and accessibility of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite-based catalysts is of a paramount importance to further improve their catalytic performance. However, it remains challenging to measure real-time changes in reactivity of single zeolite catalyst particles by ensemble-averaging characterization methods. In this work, a detailed 3D single molecule, single turnover sensitive fluorescence microscopy study is presented to quantify the reactivity of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals upon steaming. This approach, in combination with the oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol as a probe reaction, allowed the stochastic behavior of single catalytic turnovers and temporally resolved turnover frequencies of zeolite domains smaller than the diffraction limited resolution to be investigated with great precision. It was found that the single turnover kinetics of the parent zeolite crystal proceeds with significant spatial differences in turnover frequencies on the nanoscale and noncorrelated temporal fluctuations. Mild steaming of zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals at 500 °C led to an enhanced surface reactivity, with up to 4 times higher local turnover rates than those of the parent H-ZSM-5 crystals, and revealed remarkable heterogeneities in surface reactivity. In strong contrast, severe steaming at 700 °C significantly dealuminated the zeolite H-ZSM-5 material, leading to a 460 times lower turnover rate. The differences in measured turnover activities are explained by changes in the 3D aluminum distribution due to migration of extraframework Al-species and their subsequent effect on pore accessibility, as corroborated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) sputter depth profiling data.
Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)6559-6568
Aantal pagina's10
TijdschriftJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume137
Nummer van het tijdschrift20
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 2015
Extern gepubliceerdJa

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