Probing the origin and suppression of vertically oriented nanostructures of 2D WS2 layers

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Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS 2 are promising materials for nanoelectronic applications. However, growth of the desired horizontal basal-plane oriented 2D TMD layers is often accompanied by the growth of vertical nanostructures that can hinder charge transport and, consequently, hamper device application. In this work, we discuss both the formation and suppression of vertical nanostructures during plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of WS 2. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy studies, formation pathways of vertical nanostructures are established for a two-step (AB-type) PEALD process. Grain boundaries are identified as the principal formation centers of vertical nanostructures. Based on the obtained insights, we introduce an approach to suppress the growth of vertical nanostructures, wherein an additional step (C) - a chemically inert Ar plasma or a reactive H 2 plasma - is added to the original two-step (AB-type) PEALD process. This approach reduces the vertical nanostructure density by 80%. It was confirmed that suppression of vertical nanostructures goes hand in hand with grain size enhancement. The vertical nanostructure density reduction consequently lowers film resistivity by an order of magnitude. Insights obtained in this work can contribute toward devising additional pathways, besides plasma treatments, for suppressing the growth of vertical nanostructures and improving the material properties of 2D TMDs that are relevant for nanoelectronic device applications.

Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)3873-3885
Aantal pagina's13
TijdschriftACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Volume12
Nummer van het tijdschrift3
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 22 jan 2020

Vingerafdruk

Nanostructures
Plasmas
Atomic layer deposition
Transition metals
Nanoelectronics
Charge transfer
Materials properties
Grain boundaries
Transmission electron microscopy
Scanning electron microscopy

Citeer dit

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title = "Probing the origin and suppression of vertically oriented nanostructures of 2D WS2 layers",
abstract = "Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS 2 are promising materials for nanoelectronic applications. However, growth of the desired horizontal basal-plane oriented 2D TMD layers is often accompanied by the growth of vertical nanostructures that can hinder charge transport and, consequently, hamper device application. In this work, we discuss both the formation and suppression of vertical nanostructures during plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of WS 2. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy studies, formation pathways of vertical nanostructures are established for a two-step (AB-type) PEALD process. Grain boundaries are identified as the principal formation centers of vertical nanostructures. Based on the obtained insights, we introduce an approach to suppress the growth of vertical nanostructures, wherein an additional step (C) - a chemically inert Ar plasma or a reactive H 2 plasma - is added to the original two-step (AB-type) PEALD process. This approach reduces the vertical nanostructure density by 80{\%}. It was confirmed that suppression of vertical nanostructures goes hand in hand with grain size enhancement. The vertical nanostructure density reduction consequently lowers film resistivity by an order of magnitude. Insights obtained in this work can contribute toward devising additional pathways, besides plasma treatments, for suppressing the growth of vertical nanostructures and improving the material properties of 2D TMDs that are relevant for nanoelectronic device applications.",
keywords = "2D WS, grain size, low-temperature processing, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, suppression of 2D vertical layers, vertical growth of 2D layers",
author = "Shashank Balasubramanyam and Matthew Bloodgood and {van Ommeren}, M. and Tahsin Faraz and Vincent Vandalon and Kessels, {W.M.M. (Erwin)} and Verheijen, {Marcel A.} and Bol, {Ageeth A.}",
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T1 - Probing the origin and suppression of vertically oriented nanostructures of 2D WS2 layers

AU - Balasubramanyam, Shashank

AU - Bloodgood, Matthew

AU - van Ommeren, M.

AU - Faraz, Tahsin

AU - Vandalon, Vincent

AU - Kessels, W.M.M. (Erwin)

AU - Verheijen, Marcel A.

AU - Bol, Ageeth A.

PY - 2020/1/22

Y1 - 2020/1/22

N2 - Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS 2 are promising materials for nanoelectronic applications. However, growth of the desired horizontal basal-plane oriented 2D TMD layers is often accompanied by the growth of vertical nanostructures that can hinder charge transport and, consequently, hamper device application. In this work, we discuss both the formation and suppression of vertical nanostructures during plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of WS 2. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy studies, formation pathways of vertical nanostructures are established for a two-step (AB-type) PEALD process. Grain boundaries are identified as the principal formation centers of vertical nanostructures. Based on the obtained insights, we introduce an approach to suppress the growth of vertical nanostructures, wherein an additional step (C) - a chemically inert Ar plasma or a reactive H 2 plasma - is added to the original two-step (AB-type) PEALD process. This approach reduces the vertical nanostructure density by 80%. It was confirmed that suppression of vertical nanostructures goes hand in hand with grain size enhancement. The vertical nanostructure density reduction consequently lowers film resistivity by an order of magnitude. Insights obtained in this work can contribute toward devising additional pathways, besides plasma treatments, for suppressing the growth of vertical nanostructures and improving the material properties of 2D TMDs that are relevant for nanoelectronic device applications.

AB - Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS 2 are promising materials for nanoelectronic applications. However, growth of the desired horizontal basal-plane oriented 2D TMD layers is often accompanied by the growth of vertical nanostructures that can hinder charge transport and, consequently, hamper device application. In this work, we discuss both the formation and suppression of vertical nanostructures during plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of WS 2. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy studies, formation pathways of vertical nanostructures are established for a two-step (AB-type) PEALD process. Grain boundaries are identified as the principal formation centers of vertical nanostructures. Based on the obtained insights, we introduce an approach to suppress the growth of vertical nanostructures, wherein an additional step (C) - a chemically inert Ar plasma or a reactive H 2 plasma - is added to the original two-step (AB-type) PEALD process. This approach reduces the vertical nanostructure density by 80%. It was confirmed that suppression of vertical nanostructures goes hand in hand with grain size enhancement. The vertical nanostructure density reduction consequently lowers film resistivity by an order of magnitude. Insights obtained in this work can contribute toward devising additional pathways, besides plasma treatments, for suppressing the growth of vertical nanostructures and improving the material properties of 2D TMDs that are relevant for nanoelectronic device applications.

KW - 2D WS

KW - grain size

KW - low-temperature processing

KW - plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

KW - suppression of 2D vertical layers

KW - vertical growth of 2D layers

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EP - 3885

JO - ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

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