Physical and chemical defects in WO3 thin films and their impact on photoelectrochemical water splitting

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We evaluate the impact of defects in WO3 thin films on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties during water splitting. We study physical defects, such as microsized holes or cracks, by two different deposition techniques: sputtering and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Chemical defects, such as oxygen vacancies, are tailored by different annealing atmospheres, i.e., air, N2, and O2. The results show that the physical defects inside the film increase the resistance for the charge transfer and also result in a higher recombination rate which inhibits the photocurrent generation. Chemical defects yield an increased adsorption of OH groups on the film surface and enhance the PEC efficiency. An excess amount of chemical defects can also inhibit the electron transfer, thus decreasing the photocurrent generation. In this study, the highest performance was obtained for WO3 films deposited by ALD and annealed in air, which have the fewest physical defects and an appropriate amount of oxygen vacancies.
TaalEngels
Pagina's5887–5895
Aantal pagina's9
TijdschriftACS Applied Energy Materials
Volume1
Nummer van het tijdschrift11
Vroegere onlinedatum30 okt 2018
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 26 nov 2018

Vingerafdruk

water splitting
defects
thin films
atomic layer epitaxy
photocurrents
air
oxygen
electron transfer
cracks
sputtering
charge transfer
atmospheres
annealing
adsorption

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    Citeer dit

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    title = "Physical and chemical defects in WO3 thin films and their impact on photoelectrochemical water splitting",
    abstract = "We evaluate the impact of defects in WO3 thin films on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties during water splitting. We study physical defects, such as microsized holes or cracks, by two different deposition techniques: sputtering and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Chemical defects, such as oxygen vacancies, are tailored by different annealing atmospheres, i.e., air, N2, and O2. The results show that the physical defects inside the film increase the resistance for the charge transfer and also result in a higher recombination rate which inhibits the photocurrent generation. Chemical defects yield an increased adsorption of OH groups on the film surface and enhance the PEC efficiency. An excess amount of chemical defects can also inhibit the electron transfer, thus decreasing the photocurrent generation. In this study, the highest performance was obtained for WO3 films deposited by ALD and annealed in air, which have the fewest physical defects and an appropriate amount of oxygen vacancies.",
    keywords = "atomic layer deposition (ALD), defects, electron transport, photoelectrochemical water splitting, sputtering, WO",
    author = "Y. Zhao and S. Balasubramanyam and R. Sinha and R. Lavrijsen and Verheijen, {M. A.} and Bol, {A. A.} and A. Bieberle-H{\"u}tter",
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    Physical and chemical defects in WO3 thin films and their impact on photoelectrochemical water splitting. / Zhao, Y.; Balasubramanyam, S.; Sinha, R.; Lavrijsen, R.; Verheijen, M. A.; Bol, A. A.; Bieberle-Hütter, A.

    In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, Vol. 1, Nr. 11, 26.11.2018, blz. 5887–5895.

    Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Physical and chemical defects in WO3 thin films and their impact on photoelectrochemical water splitting

    AU - Zhao,Y.

    AU - Balasubramanyam,S.

    AU - Sinha,R.

    AU - Lavrijsen,R.

    AU - Verheijen,M. A.

    AU - Bol,A. A.

    AU - Bieberle-Hütter,A.

    PY - 2018/11/26

    Y1 - 2018/11/26

    N2 - We evaluate the impact of defects in WO3 thin films on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties during water splitting. We study physical defects, such as microsized holes or cracks, by two different deposition techniques: sputtering and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Chemical defects, such as oxygen vacancies, are tailored by different annealing atmospheres, i.e., air, N2, and O2. The results show that the physical defects inside the film increase the resistance for the charge transfer and also result in a higher recombination rate which inhibits the photocurrent generation. Chemical defects yield an increased adsorption of OH groups on the film surface and enhance the PEC efficiency. An excess amount of chemical defects can also inhibit the electron transfer, thus decreasing the photocurrent generation. In this study, the highest performance was obtained for WO3 films deposited by ALD and annealed in air, which have the fewest physical defects and an appropriate amount of oxygen vacancies.

    AB - We evaluate the impact of defects in WO3 thin films on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties during water splitting. We study physical defects, such as microsized holes or cracks, by two different deposition techniques: sputtering and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Chemical defects, such as oxygen vacancies, are tailored by different annealing atmospheres, i.e., air, N2, and O2. The results show that the physical defects inside the film increase the resistance for the charge transfer and also result in a higher recombination rate which inhibits the photocurrent generation. Chemical defects yield an increased adsorption of OH groups on the film surface and enhance the PEC efficiency. An excess amount of chemical defects can also inhibit the electron transfer, thus decreasing the photocurrent generation. In this study, the highest performance was obtained for WO3 films deposited by ALD and annealed in air, which have the fewest physical defects and an appropriate amount of oxygen vacancies.

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