One of the current challenges in nanoscience is tailoring the phononic properties of a material. This has long been a rather elusive task because several phonons have wavelengths in the nanometer range. Thus, high quality nanostructuring at that length-scale, unavailable until recently, is necessary for engineering the phonon spectrum. Here we report on the continuous tuning of the phononic properties of a twinning superlattice GaP nanowire by controlling its periodicity. Our experimental results, based on Raman spectroscopy and rationalized by means of ab initio theoretical calculations, give insight into the relation between local crystal structure, overall lattice symmetry, and vibrational properties, demonstrating how material engineering at the nanoscale can be successfully employed in the rational design of the phonon spectrum of a material.