One‐step deposition of nano‐to‐micron‐scalable, high‐quality digital image correlation patterns for high‐strain in‐situ multi‐microscopy testing

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Digital image correlation (DIC) is of vital importance in the field of experimental mechanics, yet producing suitable DIC patterns for demanding in-situ (micro)mechanical tests remains challenging, especially for ultrafine patterns, despite the large number of patterning techniques reported in the literature. Therefore, we propose a simple, flexible, one-step technique (only requiring a conventional physical vapour deposition machine) to obtain scalable, high-quality, robust DIC patterns, suitable for a range of microscopic techniques, by deposition of a low-melting temperature solder alloy in the so-called island growth mode, without elevating the substrate temperature. Proof of principle is shown by (near-)room temperature deposition of InSn patterns, yielding highly dense, homogeneous DIC patterns over large areas with a feature size that can be tuned from as small as ~10 nm to ~2 μm and with control over the feature shape and density by changing the deposition parameters. Pattern optimisation, in terms of feature size, density, and contrast, is demonstrated for imaging with atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and optical microscopy. Moreover, the performance of the InSn DIC patterns and their robustness to large deformations is validated in two challenging case studies of in-situ micromechanical testing: (a) self-adaptive isogeometric digital height correlation of optical surface height profiles of a coarse, bimodal InSn pattern providing microscopic 3D deformation fields (illustrated for delamination of Al stretchable interconnects on a PI substrate) and (b) DIC on scanning electron microscopy images of a much finer InSn pattern allowing quantification of high strains near fracture locations (illustrated for rupture of a polycrystalline Fe foil). As such, the high controllability, performance, and scalability of the DIC patterns, created by island growth of a solder alloy, offer a promising step towards more routine DIC-based in-situ micromechanical testing.

Originele taal-2Engels
Artikelnummere12330
Aantal pagina's13
TijdschriftStrain
Volume55
Nummer van het tijdschrift6
Vroegere onlinedatum30 aug 2019
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 1 dec 2019

Vingerafdruk

Soldering alloys
Testing
Scanning electron microscopy
Profilometry
Physical vapor deposition
Substrates
Controllability
Delamination
Metal foil
Optical microscopy
Melting point
Scalability
Atomic force microscopy
Mechanics
Imaging techniques
Temperature

Citeer dit

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title = "One‐step deposition of nano‐to‐micron‐scalable, high‐quality digital image correlation patterns for high‐strain in‐situ multi‐microscopy testing",
abstract = "Digital image correlation (DIC) is of vital importance in the field of experimental mechanics, yet producing suitable DIC patterns for demanding in-situ (micro)mechanical tests remains challenging, especially for ultrafine patterns, despite the large number of patterning techniques reported in the literature. Therefore, we propose a simple, flexible, one-step technique (only requiring a conventional physical vapour deposition machine) to obtain scalable, high-quality, robust DIC patterns, suitable for a range of microscopic techniques, by deposition of a low-melting temperature solder alloy in the so-called island growth mode, without elevating the substrate temperature. Proof of principle is shown by (near-)room temperature deposition of InSn patterns, yielding highly dense, homogeneous DIC patterns over large areas with a feature size that can be tuned from as small as ~10 nm to ~2 μm and with control over the feature shape and density by changing the deposition parameters. Pattern optimisation, in terms of feature size, density, and contrast, is demonstrated for imaging with atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and optical microscopy. Moreover, the performance of the InSn DIC patterns and their robustness to large deformations is validated in two challenging case studies of in-situ micromechanical testing: (a) self-adaptive isogeometric digital height correlation of optical surface height profiles of a coarse, bimodal InSn pattern providing microscopic 3D deformation fields (illustrated for delamination of Al stretchable interconnects on a PI substrate) and (b) DIC on scanning electron microscopy images of a much finer InSn pattern allowing quantification of high strains near fracture locations (illustrated for rupture of a polycrystalline Fe foil). As such, the high controllability, performance, and scalability of the DIC patterns, created by island growth of a solder alloy, offer a promising step towards more routine DIC-based in-situ micromechanical testing.",
keywords = "DIC pattern, digital image correlation, experimental mechanics, in‐situ micromechanical testing, optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, in-situ micromechanical testing",
author = "Johan Hoefnagels and Maris, {Marc van} and Tijmen Vermeij",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/str.12330",
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journal = "Strain",
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T1 - One‐step deposition of nano‐to‐micron‐scalable, high‐quality digital image correlation patterns for high‐strain in‐situ multi‐microscopy testing

AU - Hoefnagels, Johan

AU - Maris, Marc van

AU - Vermeij, Tijmen

PY - 2019/12/1

Y1 - 2019/12/1

N2 - Digital image correlation (DIC) is of vital importance in the field of experimental mechanics, yet producing suitable DIC patterns for demanding in-situ (micro)mechanical tests remains challenging, especially for ultrafine patterns, despite the large number of patterning techniques reported in the literature. Therefore, we propose a simple, flexible, one-step technique (only requiring a conventional physical vapour deposition machine) to obtain scalable, high-quality, robust DIC patterns, suitable for a range of microscopic techniques, by deposition of a low-melting temperature solder alloy in the so-called island growth mode, without elevating the substrate temperature. Proof of principle is shown by (near-)room temperature deposition of InSn patterns, yielding highly dense, homogeneous DIC patterns over large areas with a feature size that can be tuned from as small as ~10 nm to ~2 μm and with control over the feature shape and density by changing the deposition parameters. Pattern optimisation, in terms of feature size, density, and contrast, is demonstrated for imaging with atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and optical microscopy. Moreover, the performance of the InSn DIC patterns and their robustness to large deformations is validated in two challenging case studies of in-situ micromechanical testing: (a) self-adaptive isogeometric digital height correlation of optical surface height profiles of a coarse, bimodal InSn pattern providing microscopic 3D deformation fields (illustrated for delamination of Al stretchable interconnects on a PI substrate) and (b) DIC on scanning electron microscopy images of a much finer InSn pattern allowing quantification of high strains near fracture locations (illustrated for rupture of a polycrystalline Fe foil). As such, the high controllability, performance, and scalability of the DIC patterns, created by island growth of a solder alloy, offer a promising step towards more routine DIC-based in-situ micromechanical testing.

AB - Digital image correlation (DIC) is of vital importance in the field of experimental mechanics, yet producing suitable DIC patterns for demanding in-situ (micro)mechanical tests remains challenging, especially for ultrafine patterns, despite the large number of patterning techniques reported in the literature. Therefore, we propose a simple, flexible, one-step technique (only requiring a conventional physical vapour deposition machine) to obtain scalable, high-quality, robust DIC patterns, suitable for a range of microscopic techniques, by deposition of a low-melting temperature solder alloy in the so-called island growth mode, without elevating the substrate temperature. Proof of principle is shown by (near-)room temperature deposition of InSn patterns, yielding highly dense, homogeneous DIC patterns over large areas with a feature size that can be tuned from as small as ~10 nm to ~2 μm and with control over the feature shape and density by changing the deposition parameters. Pattern optimisation, in terms of feature size, density, and contrast, is demonstrated for imaging with atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and optical microscopy. Moreover, the performance of the InSn DIC patterns and their robustness to large deformations is validated in two challenging case studies of in-situ micromechanical testing: (a) self-adaptive isogeometric digital height correlation of optical surface height profiles of a coarse, bimodal InSn pattern providing microscopic 3D deformation fields (illustrated for delamination of Al stretchable interconnects on a PI substrate) and (b) DIC on scanning electron microscopy images of a much finer InSn pattern allowing quantification of high strains near fracture locations (illustrated for rupture of a polycrystalline Fe foil). As such, the high controllability, performance, and scalability of the DIC patterns, created by island growth of a solder alloy, offer a promising step towards more routine DIC-based in-situ micromechanical testing.

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KW - experimental mechanics

KW - in‐situ micromechanical testing

KW - optical profilometry

KW - scanning electron microscopy

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JO - Strain

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