On the homocoupling of trialkylstannyl monomers in the synthesis of diketopyrrolopyrrole polymers and its effect on the performance of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic cells

Gaël H.L. Heintges, René A.J. Janssen (Corresponding author)

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Uittreksel

Homocoupling of monomers in a palladium-catalyzed copolymerization of donor-acceptor polymers affects the perfect alternating structure and may deteriorate the performance of such materials in solar cells. Here we investigate the effect of homocoupling bis(trialkylstannyl)-thiophene and -bithiophene monomers in two low band gap poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-alt-oligothiophene) polymers by deliberately introducing extended oligothiophene defects in a controlled fashion. We find that extension of the oligothiophene by one or two thiophenes and creating defects up to at least 10% does not significantly affect the opto-electronic properties of the polymers or their photovoltaic performance as electron donor in solar cells in combination with [6,6]-phenyl C71 butytic acid methyl ester as acceptor. By using model reactions, we further demonstrate that for the optimized synthetic protocol and palladium-catalyst system the naturally occurring defect concentration in the polymers is expected to be less than 0.5%.
TaalEngels
Pagina's15703-15714
Aantal pagina's12
TijdschriftRSC Advances
Volume9
Nummer van het tijdschrift28
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 23 mei 2019

Vingerafdruk

Fullerenes
Photovoltaic cells
Polymers
Monomers
Thiophenes
Palladium
Thiophene
Defects
Solar cells
Electronic properties
Copolymerization
Esters
Energy gap
Catalysts
Acids
Electrons

Citeer dit

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abstract = "Homocoupling of monomers in a palladium-catalyzed copolymerization of donor-acceptor polymers affects the perfect alternating structure and may deteriorate the performance of such materials in solar cells. Here we investigate the effect of homocoupling bis(trialkylstannyl)-thiophene and -bithiophene monomers in two low band gap poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-alt-oligothiophene) polymers by deliberately introducing extended oligothiophene defects in a controlled fashion. We find that extension of the oligothiophene by one or two thiophenes and creating defects up to at least 10{\%} does not significantly affect the opto-electronic properties of the polymers or their photovoltaic performance as electron donor in solar cells in combination with [6,6]-phenyl C71 butytic acid methyl ester as acceptor. By using model reactions, we further demonstrate that for the optimized synthetic protocol and palladium-catalyst system the naturally occurring defect concentration in the polymers is expected to be less than 0.5{\%}.",
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