We demonstrate a novel approach to quantify the interparticle distance in colloidal dimers using Mie scattering. The interparticle distance is varied in a controlled way by changing the ionic strength of the solution and the magnetic attraction between the particles. The measured scaling behavior is interpreted using an energy-distance model that includes the repulsive electrostatic and attractive magnetic interactions. The center-to-center distances of particles with a 525 nm radius can be determined with a root-mean-square accuracy of 12 nm. The data show that the center-to-center distance is larger by 83 nm compared to perfect spheres. The underlying distance offset can be attributed to repulsion by charged protrusions caused by particle surface roughness. The measurement method accurately quantifies interparticle distances that can be used to study cluster formation and colloid aggregation in complex systems, e.g., in biosensing applications.