Different types of butyl acrylate (BA)-co-acrylic acid (AA) oligomers were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and mixed with extruded 200 nm dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide vesicles. The resulting precursor structures form the basis for subsequent vesicle-templated polymerizations. Systematic variations in temperature, pH, oligomer length, and oligomer composition and their effects on precursor morphology were studied. Surprisingly, different morphologies were obtained, including capsules, protruded capsules, solid spheres, and multicompartment structures. For example, capsules and multicompartment structures were found to result from higher AA contents, and protruded capsules and solid particles resulted from lower AA contents. Subsequent chain extension of the RAFT oligomers resulted in polymer nanostructures resembling the precursor morphologies.