3D microbatteries are indispensable to cope with the increasing energy demand of autonomous smart devices. To synthesize 3D microbatteries, step-conformal deposition of thin films into 3D-substrates is vital, and low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) is a technique that is capable of achieving this goal. In the present work, the 3D-deposition of TiO2 is investigated. It is shown that the growth of anatase TiO2 can be characterized by two rate-determining processes. In the diffusion-controlled temperature region, the TiO2 films deposited into 3D-substrates lack step-conformity. In contrast, in the kinetically controlled temperature region, uniform films were deposited inside these microstructures. To understand and improve the LPCVD deposition process, the experimental results were simulated using a Monte Carlo chemical kinetics (MCCK) model. Good agreement between the model and experiments was achieved in all cases. It was found that the deposition probability is low in the kinetically controlled deposition region, while this probability was found to be high in the diffusion-controlled region. It is also shown that the reflections of precursor molecules inside the trenches play an important role in achieving homogeneous 3D deposition. To show the strength of the MCCK model, the optimized deposition parameters are applied to predict the film thickness profiles in narrower microstructures.
Xie, J., Danilov, D. L., Eichel, R. A., & Notten, P. H. L. (2016). Modeling 3D-deposition of TiO2 using a Monte Carlo chemical kinetics approach. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 120(41), 23823–23835. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b07594