Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

R.C. Wolf, A. Ali, A. Alonso, J. Baldzuhn, C. Beidler, M. Beurskens, C. Biedermann, H.S. Bosch, S. Bozhenkov, R. Brakel, A. Dinklage, Y. Feng, G. Fuchert, J. Geiger, O. Grulke, P. Helander, M. Hirsch, U. Höfel, M. Jakubowski, J. Knauer & 437 andere G. Kocsis, R. König, P. Kornejew, A. Kràmer-Flecken, M. Krychowiak, M. Landreman, A. Langenberg, H. P. Laqua, S. Lazerson, H. Maaßberg, S. Marsen, M. Marushchenko, D. Moseev, H. Niemann, N. Pablant, E. Pasch, K. Rahbarnia, G. Schlisio, T. Stange, T. Sunn Pedersen, J. Svensson, T. Szepesi, H. Trimino Mora, Y. Turkin, T. Wauters, G. Weir, U. Wenzel, T. Windisch, G. Wurden, D. Zhang, I. Abramovic, S. Äkàslompolo, P. Aleynikov, K. Aleynikova, R. Alzbutas, G. Anda, T. Andreeva, E. Ascasibar, J. Assmann, S. G. Baek, M. Banduch, T. Barbui, M. Barlak, K. Baumann, W. Behr, A. Benndorf, O. Bertuch, W. Biel, D. Birus, B. Blackwell, E. Blanco, M. Blatzheim, T. Bluhm, D. Böckenhoff, P. Bolgert, M. Borchardt, V. Borsuk, J. Boscary, L. G. Böttger, H. Brand, Ch Brandt, T. Bràuer, H. Braune, S. Brezinsek, K. J. Brunner, B. Brünner, R. Burhenn, B. Buttenschön, V. Bykov, I. Calvo, B. Cannas, A. Cappa, A. Carls, L. Carraro, B. Carvalho, F. Castejon, A. Charl, F. Chernyshev, M. Cianciosa, R. Citarella, Ciupiński, G. Claps, M. Cole, M. J. Cole, F. Cordella, G. Cseh, A. Czarnecka, A. Czermak, K. Czerski, M. Czerwinski, G. Czymek, A. Da Molin, A. Da Silva, G. Dammertz, J. Danielson, A. De La Pena, S. Degenkolbe, P. Denner, D. P. Dhard, M. Dostal, M. Drevlak, P. Drewelow, Ph Drews, A. Dudek, G. Dundulis, F. Durodie, P. Van Eeten, F. Effenberg, G. Ehrke, M. Endler, D. Ennis, E. Erckmann, H. Esteban, T. Estrada, N. Fahrenkamp, J. H. Feist, J. Fellinger, H. Fernandes, W. H. Fietz, W. Figacz, J. Fontdecaba, O. Ford, T. Fornal, H. Frerichs, A. Freund, M. Führer, T. Funaba, A. Galkowski, G. Gantenbein, Y. Gao, J. García Regaña, M. Garcia-Munoz, D. Gates, G. Gawlik, B. Geiger, V. Giannella, N. Gierse, A. Gogoleva, B. Goncalves, A. Goriaev, D. Gradic, M. Grahl, J. Green, A. Grosman, H. Grote, M. Gruca, C. Guerard, L. Haiduk, X. Han, F. Harberts, J. H. Harris, H. J. Hartfuß, D. Hartmann, D. Hathiramani, B. Hein, B. Heinemann, P. Heitzenroeder, S. Henneberg, C. Hennig, J. Hernandez Sanchez, C. Hidalgo, H. Hölbe, K. P. Hollfeld, A. Hölting, D. Höschen, M. Houry, J. Howard, X. Huang, M. Huber, V. Huber, H. Hunger, K. Ida, T. Ilkei, S. Illy, B. Israeli, A. Ivanov, S. Jablonski, J. Jagielski, J. Jelonnek, H. Jenzsch, P. Junghans, J. Kacmarczyk, T. Kaliatka, J. P. Kallmeyer, U. Kamionka, R. Karalevicius, H. Kasahara, W. Kasparek, N. Kenmochi, M. Keunecke, A. Khilchenko, D. Kinna, R. Kleiber, T. Klinger, M. Knaup, Th Kobarg, F. Köchl, Y. Kolesnichenko, A. Könies, M. Köppen, J. Koshurinov, R. Koslowski, F. Köster, R. Koziol, M. Krämer, R. Krampitz, P. Kraszewsk, N. Krawczyk, T. Kremeyer, Th Krings, J. Krom, G. Krzesinski, I. Ksiazek, M. Kubkowska, G. Kühner, T. Kurki-Suonio, S. Kwak, R. Lang, S. Langish, R. Laube, C. Lechte, M. Lennartz, W. Leonhardt, L. Lewerentz, Y. Liang, Ch Linsmeier, S. Liu, J. F. Lobsien, D. Loesser, J. Loizu Cisquella, J. Lore, A. Lorenz, M. Losert, L. Lubyako, A. Lücke, A. Lumsdaine, V. Lutsenko, J. Majano-Brown, O. Marchuk, M. Mardenfeld, P. Marek, S. Massidda, S. Masuzaki, D. Maurer, K. McCarthy, P. McNeely, A. Meier, D. Mellein, B. Mendelevitch, Ph Mertens, D. Mikkelsen, O. Mishchenko, B. Missal, J. Mittelstaedt, T. Mizuuchi, A. Mollen, V. Moncada, T. Mönnich, T. Morizaki, R. Munk, S. Murakami, F. Musielok, G. Náfrádi, M. Nagel, D. Naujoks, H. Neilson, O. Neubauer, U. Neuner, T. Ngo, R. Nocentini, C. Nührenberg, J. Nührenberg, S. Obermayer, G. Offermanns, K. Ogawa, J. Ongena, J. W. Oosterbeek, G. Orozco, M. Otte, L. Pacios Rodriguez, W. Pan, N. Panadero, N. Panadero Alvarez, A. Panin, D. Papenfuß, S. Paqay, A. Pavone, E. Pawelec, G. Pelka, X. Peng, V. Perseo, B. Peterson, A. Pieper, D. Pilopp, S. Pingel, F. Pisano, B. Plaum, G. Plunk, M. Povilaitis, J. Preinhaelter, J. Proll, M. E. Puiatti, A. Puig Sitjes, F. Purps, M. Rack, S. Récsei, A. Reiman, D. Reiter, F. Remppel, S. Renard, R. Riedl, J. Riemann, S. Rimkevicius, K. Riße, A. Rodatos, H. Röhlinger, M. Romé, P. Rong, H. J. Roscher, B. Roth, L. Rudischhauser, K. Rummel, T. Rummel, A. Runov, N. Rust, L. Ryc, S. Ryosuke, R. Sakamoto, A. Samartsev, M. Sanchez, F. Sano, S. Satake, G. Satheeswaran, J. Schacht, F. Schauer, T. Scherer, A. Schlaich, K. H. Schlüter, J. Schmitt, H. Schmitz, O. Schmitz, S. Schmuck, M. Schneider, W. Schneider, M. Scholz, P. Scholz, R. Schrittwieser, M. Schröder, T. Schröder, R. Schroeder, H. Schumacher, B. Schweer, B. Shanahan, I. V. Shikhovtsev, M. Sibilia, P. Sinha, S. Siplià, J. Skodzik, C. Slaby, H. Smith, W. Spiess, D. A. Spong, A. Spring, R. Stadler, B. Standley, L. Stephey, M. Stoneking, U. Stridde, Z. Sulek, C. Surko, Y. Suzuki, V. Szabó, T. Szabolics, Z. Szökefalvi-Nagy, N. Tamura, A. Terra, J. Terry, J. Thomas, H. Thomsen, M. Thumm, C. P. Von Thun, D. Timmermann, P. Titus, K. Toi, J. M. Travere, P. Traverso, J. Tretter, H. Tsuchiya, T. Tsujimura, S. Tulipán, M. Turnyanskiy, B. Unterberg, J. Urban, E. Urbonavicius, I. Vakulchyk, S. Valet, B. Van Millingen, L. Vela, J. L. Velasco, M. Vergote, M. Vervier, N. Vianello, H. Viebke, R. Vilbrandt, A. Vorkörper, S. Wadle, F. Wagner, E. Wang, N. Wang, F. Warmer, L. Wegener, J. Weggen, Y. Wei, J. Wendorf, A. Werner, B. Wiegel, F. Wilde, E. Winkler, V. Winters, S. Wolf, J. Wolowski, A. Wright, P. Xanthopoulos, H. Yamada, I. Yamada, R. Yasuhara, M. Yokoyama, J. Zajac, M. Zarnstorff, A. Zeitler, H. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Zilker, A. Zimbal, A. Zocco, S. Zoletnik, M. Zuin

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

69 Citaties (Scopus)

Uittreksel

After completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initial physics studies during the first operational campaign. Both in helium and hydrogen, plasma breakdown was easily achieved. Gaining experience with plasma vessel conditioning, discharge lengths could be extended gradually. Eventually, discharges lasted up to 6 s, reaching an injected energy of 4 MJ, which is twice the limit originally agreed for the limiter configuration employed during the first operational campaign. At power levels of 4 MW central electron densities reached 3 1019 m-3, central electron temperatures reached values of 7 keV and ion temperatures reached just above 2 keV. Important physics studies during this first operational phase include a first assessment of power balance and energy confinement, ECRH power deposition experiments, 2nd harmonic O-mode ECRH using multi-pass absorption, and current drive experiments using electron cyclotron current drive. As in many plasma discharges the electron temperature exceeds the ion temperature significantly, these plasmas are governed by core electron root confinement showing a strong positive electric field in the plasma centre.

TaalEngels
Artikelnummer102020
TijdschriftNuclear Fusion
Volume57
Nummer van het tijdschrift10
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 27 jul 2017

Vingerafdruk

stellarators
electron cyclotron resonance
ion temperature
heating
electron energy
helium plasma
physics
plasma diagnostics
hydrogen plasma
conditioning
plasma jets
cyclotrons
vessels
electrons
breakdown
harmonics
electric fields
energy
configurations
temperature

Trefwoorden

    Citeer dit

    Wolf, R. C., Ali, A., Alonso, A., Baldzuhn, J., Beidler, C., Beurskens, M., ... Zuin, M. (2017). Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. Nuclear Fusion, 57(10), [102020]. DOI: 10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d
    Wolf, R.C. ; Ali, A. ; Alonso, A. ; Baldzuhn, J. ; Beidler, C. ; Beurskens, M. ; Biedermann, C. ; Bosch, H.S. ; Bozhenkov, S. ; Brakel, R. ; Dinklage, A. ; Feng, Y. ; Fuchert, G. ; Geiger, J. ; Grulke, O. ; Helander, P. ; Hirsch, M. ; Höfel, U. ; Jakubowski, M. ; Knauer, J. ; Kocsis, G. ; König, R. ; Kornejew, P. ; Kràmer-Flecken, A. ; Krychowiak, M. ; Landreman, M. ; Langenberg, A. ; Laqua, H. P. ; Lazerson, S. ; Maaßberg, H. ; Marsen, S. ; Marushchenko, M. ; Moseev, D. ; Niemann, H. ; Pablant, N. ; Pasch, E. ; Rahbarnia, K. ; Schlisio, G. ; Stange, T. ; Sunn Pedersen, T. ; Svensson, J. ; Szepesi, T. ; Trimino Mora, H. ; Turkin, Y. ; Wauters, T. ; Weir, G. ; Wenzel, U. ; Windisch, T. ; Wurden, G. ; Zhang, D. ; Abramovic, I. ; Äkàslompolo, S. ; Aleynikov, P. ; Aleynikova, K. ; Alzbutas, R. ; Anda, G. ; Andreeva, T. ; Ascasibar, E. ; Assmann, J. ; Baek, S. G. ; Banduch, M. ; Barbui, T. ; Barlak, M. ; Baumann, K. ; Behr, W. ; Benndorf, A. ; Bertuch, O. ; Biel, W. ; Birus, D. ; Blackwell, B. ; Blanco, E. ; Blatzheim, M. ; Bluhm, T. ; Böckenhoff, D. ; Bolgert, P. ; Borchardt, M. ; Borsuk, V. ; Boscary, J. ; Böttger, L. G. ; Brand, H. ; Brandt, Ch ; Bràuer, T. ; Braune, H. ; Brezinsek, S. ; Brunner, K. J. ; Brünner, B. ; Burhenn, R. ; Buttenschön, B. ; Bykov, V. ; Calvo, I. ; Cannas, B. ; Cappa, A. ; Carls, A. ; Carraro, L. ; Carvalho, B. ; Castejon, F. ; Charl, A. ; Chernyshev, F. ; Cianciosa, M. ; Citarella, R. ; Ciupiński ; Claps, G. ; Cole, M. ; Cole, M. J. ; Cordella, F. ; Cseh, G. ; Czarnecka, A. ; Czermak, A. ; Czerski, K. ; Czerwinski, M. ; Czymek, G. ; Da Molin, A. ; Da Silva, A. ; Dammertz, G. ; Danielson, J. ; De La Pena, A. ; Degenkolbe, S. ; Denner, P. ; Dhard, D. P. ; Dostal, M. ; Drevlak, M. ; Drewelow, P. ; Drews, Ph ; Dudek, A. ; Dundulis, G. ; Durodie, F. ; Van Eeten, P. ; Effenberg, F. ; Ehrke, G. ; Endler, M. ; Ennis, D. ; Erckmann, E. ; Esteban, H. ; Estrada, T. ; Fahrenkamp, N. ; Feist, J. H. ; Fellinger, J. ; Fernandes, H. ; Fietz, W. H. ; Figacz, W. ; Fontdecaba, J. ; Ford, O. ; Fornal, T. ; Frerichs, H. ; Freund, A. ; Führer, M. ; Funaba, T. ; Galkowski, A. ; Gantenbein, G. ; Gao, Y. ; García Regaña, J. ; Garcia-Munoz, M. ; Gates, D. ; Gawlik, G. ; Geiger, B. ; Giannella, V. ; Gierse, N. ; Gogoleva, A. ; Goncalves, B. ; Goriaev, A. ; Gradic, D. ; Grahl, M. ; Green, J. ; Grosman, A. ; Grote, H. ; Gruca, M. ; Guerard, C. ; Haiduk, L. ; Han, X. ; Harberts, F. ; Harris, J. H. ; Hartfuß, H. J. ; Hartmann, D. ; Hathiramani, D. ; Hein, B. ; Heinemann, B. ; Heitzenroeder, P. ; Henneberg, S. ; Hennig, C. ; Hernandez Sanchez, J. ; Hidalgo, C. ; Hölbe, H. ; Hollfeld, K. P. ; Hölting, A. ; Höschen, D. ; Houry, M. ; Howard, J. ; Huang, X. ; Huber, M. ; Huber, V. ; Hunger, H. ; Ida, K. ; Ilkei, T. ; Illy, S. ; Israeli, B. ; Ivanov, A. ; Jablonski, S. ; Jagielski, J. ; Jelonnek, J. ; Jenzsch, H. ; Junghans, P. ; Kacmarczyk, J. ; Kaliatka, T. ; Kallmeyer, J. P. ; Kamionka, U. ; Karalevicius, R. ; Kasahara, H. ; Kasparek, W. ; Kenmochi, N. ; Keunecke, M. ; Khilchenko, A. ; Kinna, D. ; Kleiber, R. ; Klinger, T. ; Knaup, M. ; Kobarg, Th ; Köchl, F. ; Kolesnichenko, Y. ; Könies, A. ; Köppen, M. ; Koshurinov, J. ; Koslowski, R. ; Köster, F. ; Koziol, R. ; Krämer, M. ; Krampitz, R. ; Kraszewsk, P. ; Krawczyk, N. ; Kremeyer, T. ; Krings, Th ; Krom, J. ; Krzesinski, G. ; Ksiazek, I. ; Kubkowska, M. ; Kühner, G. ; Kurki-Suonio, T. ; Kwak, S. ; Lang, R. ; Langish, S. ; Laube, R. ; Lechte, C. ; Lennartz, M. ; Leonhardt, W. ; Lewerentz, L. ; Liang, Y. ; Linsmeier, Ch ; Liu, S. ; Lobsien, J. F. ; Loesser, D. ; Loizu Cisquella, J. ; Lore, J. ; Lorenz, A. ; Losert, M. ; Lubyako, L. ; Lücke, A. ; Lumsdaine, A. ; Lutsenko, V. ; Majano-Brown, J. ; Marchuk, O. ; Mardenfeld, M. ; Marek, P. ; Massidda, S. ; Masuzaki, S. ; Maurer, D. ; McCarthy, K. ; McNeely, P. ; Meier, A. ; Mellein, D. ; Mendelevitch, B. ; Mertens, Ph ; Mikkelsen, D. ; Mishchenko, O. ; Missal, B. ; Mittelstaedt, J. ; Mizuuchi, T. ; Mollen, A. ; Moncada, V. ; Mönnich, T. ; Morizaki, T. ; Munk, R. ; Murakami, S. ; Musielok, F. ; Náfrádi, G. ; Nagel, M. ; Naujoks, D. ; Neilson, H. ; Neubauer, O. ; Neuner, U. ; Ngo, T. ; Nocentini, R. ; Nührenberg, C. ; Nührenberg, J. ; Obermayer, S. ; Offermanns, G. ; Ogawa, K. ; Ongena, J. ; Oosterbeek, J. W. ; Orozco, G. ; Otte, M. ; Pacios Rodriguez, L. ; Pan, W. ; Panadero, N. ; Panadero Alvarez, N. ; Panin, A. ; Papenfuß, D. ; Paqay, S. ; Pavone, A. ; Pawelec, E. ; Pelka, G. ; Peng, X. ; Perseo, V. ; Peterson, B. ; Pieper, A. ; Pilopp, D. ; Pingel, S. ; Pisano, F. ; Plaum, B. ; Plunk, G. ; Povilaitis, M. ; Preinhaelter, J. ; Proll, J. ; Puiatti, M. E. ; Puig Sitjes, A. ; Purps, F. ; Rack, M. ; Récsei, S. ; Reiman, A. ; Reiter, D. ; Remppel, F. ; Renard, S. ; Riedl, R. ; Riemann, J. ; Rimkevicius, S. ; Riße, K. ; Rodatos, A. ; Röhlinger, H. ; Romé, M. ; Rong, P. ; Roscher, H. J. ; Roth, B. ; Rudischhauser, L. ; Rummel, K. ; Rummel, T. ; Runov, A. ; Rust, N. ; Ryc, L. ; Ryosuke, S. ; Sakamoto, R. ; Samartsev, A. ; Sanchez, M. ; Sano, F. ; Satake, S. ; Satheeswaran, G. ; Schacht, J. ; Schauer, F. ; Scherer, T. ; Schlaich, A. ; Schlüter, K. H. ; Schmitt, J. ; Schmitz, H. ; Schmitz, O. ; Schmuck, S. ; Schneider, M. ; Schneider, W. ; Scholz, M. ; Scholz, P. ; Schrittwieser, R. ; Schröder, M. ; Schröder, T. ; Schroeder, R. ; Schumacher, H. ; Schweer, B. ; Shanahan, B. ; Shikhovtsev, I. V. ; Sibilia, M. ; Sinha, P. ; Siplià, S. ; Skodzik, J. ; Slaby, C. ; Smith, H. ; Spiess, W. ; Spong, D. A. ; Spring, A. ; Stadler, R. ; Standley, B. ; Stephey, L. ; Stoneking, M. ; Stridde, U. ; Sulek, Z. ; Surko, C. ; Suzuki, Y. ; Szabó, V. ; Szabolics, T. ; Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z. ; Tamura, N. ; Terra, A. ; Terry, J. ; Thomas, J. ; Thomsen, H. ; Thumm, M. ; Von Thun, C. P. ; Timmermann, D. ; Titus, P. ; Toi, K. ; Travere, J. M. ; Traverso, P. ; Tretter, J. ; Tsuchiya, H. ; Tsujimura, T. ; Tulipán, S. ; Turnyanskiy, M. ; Unterberg, B. ; Urban, J. ; Urbonavicius, E. ; Vakulchyk, I. ; Valet, S. ; Van Millingen, B. ; Vela, L. ; Velasco, J. L. ; Vergote, M. ; Vervier, M. ; Vianello, N. ; Viebke, H. ; Vilbrandt, R. ; Vorkörper, A. ; Wadle, S. ; Wagner, F. ; Wang, E. ; Wang, N. ; Warmer, F. ; Wegener, L. ; Weggen, J. ; Wei, Y. ; Wendorf, J. ; Werner, A. ; Wiegel, B. ; Wilde, F. ; Winkler, E. ; Winters, V. ; Wolf, S. ; Wolowski, J. ; Wright, A. ; Xanthopoulos, P. ; Yamada, H. ; Yamada, I. ; Yasuhara, R. ; Yokoyama, M. ; Zajac, J. ; Zarnstorff, M. ; Zeitler, A. ; Zhang, H. ; Zhu, J. ; Zilker, M. ; Zimbal, A. ; Zocco, A. ; Zoletnik, S. ; Zuin, M./ Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. In: Nuclear Fusion. 2017 ; Vol. 57, Nr. 10.
    @article{d6a9ea9f8a964e959a1560d1276b8ee9,
    title = "Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator",
    abstract = "After completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initial physics studies during the first operational campaign. Both in helium and hydrogen, plasma breakdown was easily achieved. Gaining experience with plasma vessel conditioning, discharge lengths could be extended gradually. Eventually, discharges lasted up to 6 s, reaching an injected energy of 4 MJ, which is twice the limit originally agreed for the limiter configuration employed during the first operational campaign. At power levels of 4 MW central electron densities reached 3 1019 m-3, central electron temperatures reached values of 7 keV and ion temperatures reached just above 2 keV. Important physics studies during this first operational phase include a first assessment of power balance and energy confinement, ECRH power deposition experiments, 2nd harmonic O-mode ECRH using multi-pass absorption, and current drive experiments using electron cyclotron current drive. As in many plasma discharges the electron temperature exceeds the ion temperature significantly, these plasmas are governed by core electron root confinement showing a strong positive electric field in the plasma centre.",
    keywords = "current drive, magnetic confinement, plasma heating, stellarator",
    author = "R.C. Wolf and A. Ali and A. Alonso and J. Baldzuhn and C. Beidler and M. Beurskens and C. Biedermann and H.S. Bosch and S. Bozhenkov and R. Brakel and A. Dinklage and Y. Feng and G. Fuchert and J. Geiger and O. Grulke and P. Helander and M. Hirsch and U. H{\"o}fel and M. Jakubowski and J. Knauer and G. Kocsis and R. K{\"o}nig and P. Kornejew and A. Kr{\`a}mer-Flecken and M. Krychowiak and M. Landreman and A. Langenberg and Laqua, {H. P.} and S. Lazerson and H. Maa{\ss}berg and S. Marsen and M. Marushchenko and D. Moseev and H. Niemann and N. Pablant and E. Pasch and K. Rahbarnia and G. Schlisio and T. Stange and {Sunn Pedersen}, T. and J. Svensson and T. Szepesi and {Trimino Mora}, H. and Y. Turkin and T. Wauters and G. Weir and U. Wenzel and T. Windisch and G. Wurden and D. Zhang and I. Abramovic and S. {\"A}k{\`a}slompolo and P. Aleynikov and K. Aleynikova and R. Alzbutas and G. Anda and T. Andreeva and E. Ascasibar and J. Assmann and Baek, {S. G.} and M. Banduch and T. Barbui and M. Barlak and K. Baumann and W. Behr and A. Benndorf and O. Bertuch and W. Biel and D. Birus and B. Blackwell and E. Blanco and M. Blatzheim and T. Bluhm and D. B{\"o}ckenhoff and P. Bolgert and M. Borchardt and V. Borsuk and J. Boscary and B{\"o}ttger, {L. G.} and H. Brand and Ch Brandt and T. Br{\`a}uer and H. Braune and S. Brezinsek and Brunner, {K. J.} and B. Br{\"u}nner and R. Burhenn and B. Buttensch{\"o}n and V. Bykov and I. Calvo and B. Cannas and A. Cappa and A. Carls and L. Carraro and B. Carvalho and F. Castejon and A. Charl and F. Chernyshev and M. Cianciosa and R. Citarella and Ciupiński and G. Claps and M. Cole and Cole, {M. J.} and F. Cordella and G. Cseh and A. Czarnecka and A. Czermak and K. Czerski and M. Czerwinski and G. Czymek and {Da Molin}, A. and {Da Silva}, A. and G. Dammertz and J. Danielson and {De La Pena}, A. and S. Degenkolbe and P. Denner and Dhard, {D. P.} and M. Dostal and M. Drevlak and P. Drewelow and Ph Drews and A. Dudek and G. Dundulis and F. Durodie and {Van Eeten}, P. and F. Effenberg and G. Ehrke and M. Endler and D. Ennis and E. Erckmann and H. Esteban and T. Estrada and N. Fahrenkamp and Feist, {J. H.} and J. Fellinger and H. Fernandes and Fietz, {W. H.} and W. Figacz and J. Fontdecaba and O. Ford and T. Fornal and H. Frerichs and A. Freund and M. F{\"u}hrer and T. Funaba and A. Galkowski and G. Gantenbein and Y. Gao and {Garc{\'i}a Rega{\~n}a}, J. and M. Garcia-Munoz and D. Gates and G. Gawlik and B. Geiger and V. Giannella and N. Gierse and A. Gogoleva and B. Goncalves and A. Goriaev and D. Gradic and M. Grahl and J. Green and A. Grosman and H. Grote and M. Gruca and C. Guerard and L. Haiduk and X. Han and F. Harberts and Harris, {J. H.} and Hartfu{\ss}, {H. J.} and D. Hartmann and D. Hathiramani and B. Hein and B. Heinemann and P. Heitzenroeder and S. Henneberg and C. Hennig and {Hernandez Sanchez}, J. and C. Hidalgo and H. H{\"o}lbe and Hollfeld, {K. P.} and A. H{\"o}lting and D. H{\"o}schen and M. Houry and J. Howard and X. Huang and M. Huber and V. Huber and H. Hunger and K. Ida and T. Ilkei and S. Illy and B. Israeli and A. Ivanov and S. Jablonski and J. Jagielski and J. Jelonnek and H. Jenzsch and P. Junghans and J. Kacmarczyk and T. Kaliatka and Kallmeyer, {J. P.} and U. Kamionka and R. Karalevicius and H. Kasahara and W. Kasparek and N. Kenmochi and M. Keunecke and A. Khilchenko and D. Kinna and R. Kleiber and T. Klinger and M. Knaup and Th Kobarg and F. K{\"o}chl and Y. Kolesnichenko and A. K{\"o}nies and M. K{\"o}ppen and J. Koshurinov and R. Koslowski and F. K{\"o}ster and R. Koziol and M. Kr{\"a}mer and R. Krampitz and P. Kraszewsk and N. Krawczyk and T. Kremeyer and Th Krings and J. Krom and G. Krzesinski and I. Ksiazek and M. Kubkowska and G. K{\"u}hner and T. Kurki-Suonio and S. Kwak and R. Lang and S. Langish and R. Laube and C. Lechte and M. Lennartz and W. Leonhardt and L. Lewerentz and Y. Liang and Ch Linsmeier and S. Liu and Lobsien, {J. F.} and D. Loesser and {Loizu Cisquella}, J. and J. Lore and A. Lorenz and M. Losert and L. Lubyako and A. L{\"u}cke and A. Lumsdaine and V. Lutsenko and J. Majano-Brown and O. Marchuk and M. Mardenfeld and P. Marek and S. Massidda and S. Masuzaki and D. Maurer and K. McCarthy and P. McNeely and A. Meier and D. Mellein and B. Mendelevitch and Ph Mertens and D. Mikkelsen and O. Mishchenko and B. Missal and J. Mittelstaedt and T. Mizuuchi and A. Mollen and V. Moncada and T. M{\"o}nnich and T. Morizaki and R. Munk and S. Murakami and F. Musielok and G. N{\'a}fr{\'a}di and M. Nagel and D. Naujoks and H. Neilson and O. Neubauer and U. Neuner and T. Ngo and R. Nocentini and C. N{\"u}hrenberg and J. N{\"u}hrenberg and S. Obermayer and G. Offermanns and K. Ogawa and J. Ongena and Oosterbeek, {J. W.} and G. Orozco and M. Otte and {Pacios Rodriguez}, L. and W. Pan and N. Panadero and {Panadero Alvarez}, N. and A. Panin and D. Papenfu{\ss} and S. Paqay and A. Pavone and E. Pawelec and G. Pelka and X. Peng and V. Perseo and B. Peterson and A. Pieper and D. Pilopp and S. Pingel and F. Pisano and B. Plaum and G. Plunk and M. Povilaitis and J. Preinhaelter and J. Proll and Puiatti, {M. E.} and {Puig Sitjes}, A. and F. Purps and M. Rack and S. R{\'e}csei and A. Reiman and D. Reiter and F. Remppel and S. Renard and R. Riedl and J. Riemann and S. Rimkevicius and K. Ri{\ss}e and A. Rodatos and H. R{\"o}hlinger and M. Rom{\'e} and P. Rong and Roscher, {H. J.} and B. Roth and L. Rudischhauser and K. Rummel and T. Rummel and A. Runov and N. Rust and L. Ryc and S. Ryosuke and R. Sakamoto and A. Samartsev and M. Sanchez and F. Sano and S. Satake and G. Satheeswaran and J. Schacht and F. Schauer and T. Scherer and A. Schlaich and Schl{\"u}ter, {K. H.} and J. Schmitt and H. Schmitz and O. Schmitz and S. Schmuck and M. Schneider and W. Schneider and M. Scholz and P. Scholz and R. Schrittwieser and M. Schr{\"o}der and T. Schr{\"o}der and R. Schroeder and H. Schumacher and B. Schweer and B. Shanahan and Shikhovtsev, {I. V.} and M. Sibilia and P. Sinha and S. Sipli{\`a} and J. Skodzik and C. Slaby and H. Smith and W. Spiess and Spong, {D. A.} and A. Spring and R. Stadler and B. Standley and L. Stephey and M. Stoneking and U. Stridde and Z. Sulek and C. Surko and Y. Suzuki and V. Szab{\'o} and T. Szabolics and Z. Sz{\"o}kefalvi-Nagy and N. Tamura and A. Terra and J. Terry and J. Thomas and H. Thomsen and M. Thumm and {Von Thun}, {C. P.} and D. Timmermann and P. Titus and K. Toi and Travere, {J. M.} and P. Traverso and J. Tretter and H. Tsuchiya and T. Tsujimura and S. Tulip{\'a}n and M. Turnyanskiy and B. Unterberg and J. Urban and E. Urbonavicius and I. Vakulchyk and S. Valet and {Van Millingen}, B. and L. Vela and Velasco, {J. L.} and M. Vergote and M. Vervier and N. Vianello and H. Viebke and R. Vilbrandt and A. Vork{\"o}rper and S. Wadle and F. Wagner and E. Wang and N. Wang and F. Warmer and L. Wegener and J. Weggen and Y. Wei and J. Wendorf and A. Werner and B. Wiegel and F. Wilde and E. Winkler and V. Winters and S. Wolf and J. Wolowski and A. Wright and P. Xanthopoulos and H. Yamada and I. Yamada and R. Yasuhara and M. Yokoyama and J. Zajac and M. Zarnstorff and A. Zeitler and H. Zhang and J. Zhu and M. Zilker and A. Zimbal and A. Zocco and S. Zoletnik and M. Zuin",
    year = "2017",
    month = "7",
    day = "27",
    doi = "10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d",
    language = "English",
    volume = "57",
    journal = "Nuclear Fusion",
    issn = "0029-5515",
    publisher = "Institute of Physics",
    number = "10",

    }

    Wolf, RC, Ali, A, Alonso, A, Baldzuhn, J, Beidler, C, Beurskens, M, Biedermann, C, Bosch, HS, Bozhenkov, S, Brakel, R, Dinklage, A, Feng, Y, Fuchert, G, Geiger, J, Grulke, O, Helander, P, Hirsch, M, Höfel, U, Jakubowski, M, Knauer, J, Kocsis, G, König, R, Kornejew, P, Kràmer-Flecken, A, Krychowiak, M, Landreman, M, Langenberg, A, Laqua, HP, Lazerson, S, Maaßberg, H, Marsen, S, Marushchenko, M, Moseev, D, Niemann, H, Pablant, N, Pasch, E, Rahbarnia, K, Schlisio, G, Stange, T, Sunn Pedersen, T, Svensson, J, Szepesi, T, Trimino Mora, H, Turkin, Y, Wauters, T, Weir, G, Wenzel, U, Windisch, T, Wurden, G, Zhang, D, Abramovic, I, Äkàslompolo, S, Aleynikov, P, Aleynikova, K, Alzbutas, R, Anda, G, Andreeva, T, Ascasibar, E, Assmann, J, Baek, SG, Banduch, M, Barbui, T, Barlak, M, Baumann, K, Behr, W, Benndorf, A, Bertuch, O, Biel, W, Birus, D, Blackwell, B, Blanco, E, Blatzheim, M, Bluhm, T, Böckenhoff, D, Bolgert, P, Borchardt, M, Borsuk, V, Boscary, J, Böttger, LG, Brand, H, Brandt, C, Bràuer, T, Braune, H, Brezinsek, S, Brunner, KJ, Brünner, B, Burhenn, R, Buttenschön, B, Bykov, V, Calvo, I, Cannas, B, Cappa, A, Carls, A, Carraro, L, Carvalho, B, Castejon, F, Charl, A, Chernyshev, F, Cianciosa, M, Citarella, R, Ciupiński, Claps, G, Cole, M, Cole, MJ, Cordella, F, Cseh, G, Czarnecka, A, Czermak, A, Czerski, K, Czerwinski, M, Czymek, G, Da Molin, A, Da Silva, A, Dammertz, G, Danielson, J, De La Pena, A, Degenkolbe, S, Denner, P, Dhard, DP, Dostal, M, Drevlak, M, Drewelow, P, Drews, P, Dudek, A, Dundulis, G, Durodie, F, Van Eeten, P, Effenberg, F, Ehrke, G, Endler, M, Ennis, D, Erckmann, E, Esteban, H, Estrada, T, Fahrenkamp, N, Feist, JH, Fellinger, J, Fernandes, H, Fietz, WH, Figacz, W, Fontdecaba, J, Ford, O, Fornal, T, Frerichs, H, Freund, A, Führer, M, Funaba, T, Galkowski, A, Gantenbein, G, Gao, Y, García Regaña, J, Garcia-Munoz, M, Gates, D, Gawlik, G, Geiger, B, Giannella, V, Gierse, N, Gogoleva, A, Goncalves, B, Goriaev, A, Gradic, D, Grahl, M, Green, J, Grosman, A, Grote, H, Gruca, M, Guerard, C, Haiduk, L, Han, X, Harberts, F, Harris, JH, Hartfuß, HJ, Hartmann, D, Hathiramani, D, Hein, B, Heinemann, B, Heitzenroeder, P, Henneberg, S, Hennig, C, Hernandez Sanchez, J, Hidalgo, C, Hölbe, H, Hollfeld, KP, Hölting, A, Höschen, D, Houry, M, Howard, J, Huang, X, Huber, M, Huber, V, Hunger, H, Ida, K, Ilkei, T, Illy, S, Israeli, B, Ivanov, A, Jablonski, S, Jagielski, J, Jelonnek, J, Jenzsch, H, Junghans, P, Kacmarczyk, J, Kaliatka, T, Kallmeyer, JP, Kamionka, U, Karalevicius, R, Kasahara, H, Kasparek, W, Kenmochi, N, Keunecke, M, Khilchenko, A, Kinna, D, Kleiber, R, Klinger, T, Knaup, M, Kobarg, T, Köchl, F, Kolesnichenko, Y, Könies, A, Köppen, M, Koshurinov, J, Koslowski, R, Köster, F, Koziol, R, Krämer, M, Krampitz, R, Kraszewsk, P, Krawczyk, N, Kremeyer, T, Krings, T, Krom, J, Krzesinski, G, Ksiazek, I, Kubkowska, M, Kühner, G, Kurki-Suonio, T, Kwak, S, Lang, R, Langish, S, Laube, R, Lechte, C, Lennartz, M, Leonhardt, W, Lewerentz, L, Liang, Y, Linsmeier, C, Liu, S, Lobsien, JF, Loesser, D, Loizu Cisquella, J, Lore, J, Lorenz, A, Losert, M, Lubyako, L, Lücke, A, Lumsdaine, A, Lutsenko, V, Majano-Brown, J, Marchuk, O, Mardenfeld, M, Marek, P, Massidda, S, Masuzaki, S, Maurer, D, McCarthy, K, McNeely, P, Meier, A, Mellein, D, Mendelevitch, B, Mertens, P, Mikkelsen, D, Mishchenko, O, Missal, B, Mittelstaedt, J, Mizuuchi, T, Mollen, A, Moncada, V, Mönnich, T, Morizaki, T, Munk, R, Murakami, S, Musielok, F, Náfrádi, G, Nagel, M, Naujoks, D, Neilson, H, Neubauer, O, Neuner, U, Ngo, T, Nocentini, R, Nührenberg, C, Nührenberg, J, Obermayer, S, Offermanns, G, Ogawa, K, Ongena, J, Oosterbeek, JW, Orozco, G, Otte, M, Pacios Rodriguez, L, Pan, W, Panadero, N, Panadero Alvarez, N, Panin, A, Papenfuß, D, Paqay, S, Pavone, A, Pawelec, E, Pelka, G, Peng, X, Perseo, V, Peterson, B, Pieper, A, Pilopp, D, Pingel, S, Pisano, F, Plaum, B, Plunk, G, Povilaitis, M, Preinhaelter, J, Proll, J, Puiatti, ME, Puig Sitjes, A, Purps, F, Rack, M, Récsei, S, Reiman, A, Reiter, D, Remppel, F, Renard, S, Riedl, R, Riemann, J, Rimkevicius, S, Riße, K, Rodatos, A, Röhlinger, H, Romé, M, Rong, P, Roscher, HJ, Roth, B, Rudischhauser, L, Rummel, K, Rummel, T, Runov, A, Rust, N, Ryc, L, Ryosuke, S, Sakamoto, R, Samartsev, A, Sanchez, M, Sano, F, Satake, S, Satheeswaran, G, Schacht, J, Schauer, F, Scherer, T, Schlaich, A, Schlüter, KH, Schmitt, J, Schmitz, H, Schmitz, O, Schmuck, S, Schneider, M, Schneider, W, Scholz, M, Scholz, P, Schrittwieser, R, Schröder, M, Schröder, T, Schroeder, R, Schumacher, H, Schweer, B, Shanahan, B, Shikhovtsev, IV, Sibilia, M, Sinha, P, Siplià, S, Skodzik, J, Slaby, C, Smith, H, Spiess, W, Spong, DA, Spring, A, Stadler, R, Standley, B, Stephey, L, Stoneking, M, Stridde, U, Sulek, Z, Surko, C, Suzuki, Y, Szabó, V, Szabolics, T, Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z, Tamura, N, Terra, A, Terry, J, Thomas, J, Thomsen, H, Thumm, M, Von Thun, CP, Timmermann, D, Titus, P, Toi, K, Travere, JM, Traverso, P, Tretter, J, Tsuchiya, H, Tsujimura, T, Tulipán, S, Turnyanskiy, M, Unterberg, B, Urban, J, Urbonavicius, E, Vakulchyk, I, Valet, S, Van Millingen, B, Vela, L, Velasco, JL, Vergote, M, Vervier, M, Vianello, N, Viebke, H, Vilbrandt, R, Vorkörper, A, Wadle, S, Wagner, F, Wang, E, Wang, N, Warmer, F, Wegener, L, Weggen, J, Wei, Y, Wendorf, J, Werner, A, Wiegel, B, Wilde, F, Winkler, E, Winters, V, Wolf, S, Wolowski, J, Wright, A, Xanthopoulos, P, Yamada, H, Yamada, I, Yasuhara, R, Yokoyama, M, Zajac, J, Zarnstorff, M, Zeitler, A, Zhang, H, Zhu, J, Zilker, M, Zimbal, A, Zocco, A, Zoletnik, S & Zuin, M 2017, 'Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator' Nuclear Fusion, vol. 57, nr. 10, 102020. DOI: 10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d

    Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. / Wolf, R.C.; Ali, A.; Alonso, A.; Baldzuhn, J.; Beidler, C.; Beurskens, M.; Biedermann, C.; Bosch, H.S.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Dinklage, A.; Feng, Y.; Fuchert, G.; Geiger, J.; Grulke, O.; Helander, P.; Hirsch, M.; Höfel, U.; Jakubowski, M.; Knauer, J.; Kocsis, G.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Kràmer-Flecken, A.; Krychowiak, M.; Landreman, M.; Langenberg, A.; Laqua, H. P.; Lazerson, S.; Maaßberg, H.; Marsen, S.; Marushchenko, M.; Moseev, D.; Niemann, H.; Pablant, N.; Pasch, E.; Rahbarnia, K.; Schlisio, G.; Stange, T.; Sunn Pedersen, T.; Svensson, J.; Szepesi, T.; Trimino Mora, H.; Turkin, Y.; Wauters, T.; Weir, G.; Wenzel, U.; Windisch, T.; Wurden, G.; Zhang, D.; Abramovic, I.; Äkàslompolo, S.; Aleynikov, P.; Aleynikova, K.; Alzbutas, R.; Anda, G.; Andreeva, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Assmann, J.; Baek, S. G.; Banduch, M.; Barbui, T.; Barlak, M.; Baumann, K.; Behr, W.; Benndorf, A.; Bertuch, O.; Biel, W.; Birus, D.; Blackwell, B.; Blanco, E.; Blatzheim, M.; Bluhm, T.; Böckenhoff, D.; Bolgert, P.; Borchardt, M.; Borsuk, V.; Boscary, J.; Böttger, L. G.; Brand, H.; Brandt, Ch; Bràuer, T.; Braune, H.; Brezinsek, S.; Brunner, K. J.; Brünner, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buttenschön, B.; Bykov, V.; Calvo, I.; Cannas, B.; Cappa, A.; Carls, A.; Carraro, L.; Carvalho, B.; Castejon, F.; Charl, A.; Chernyshev, F.; Cianciosa, M.; Citarella, R.; Ciupiński; Claps, G.; Cole, M.; Cole, M. J.; Cordella, F.; Cseh, G.; Czarnecka, A.; Czermak, A.; Czerski, K.; Czerwinski, M.; Czymek, G.; Da Molin, A.; Da Silva, A.; Dammertz, G.; Danielson, J.; De La Pena, A.; Degenkolbe, S.; Denner, P.; Dhard, D. P.; Dostal, M.; Drevlak, M.; Drewelow, P.; Drews, Ph; Dudek, A.; Dundulis, G.; Durodie, F.; Van Eeten, P.; Effenberg, F.; Ehrke, G.; Endler, M.; Ennis, D.; Erckmann, E.; Esteban, H.; Estrada, T.; Fahrenkamp, N.; Feist, J. H.; Fellinger, J.; Fernandes, H.; Fietz, W. H.; Figacz, W.; Fontdecaba, J.; Ford, O.; Fornal, T.; Frerichs, H.; Freund, A.; Führer, M.; Funaba, T.; Galkowski, A.; Gantenbein, G.; Gao, Y.; García Regaña, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gates, D.; Gawlik, G.; Geiger, B.; Giannella, V.; Gierse, N.; Gogoleva, A.; Goncalves, B.; Goriaev, A.; Gradic, D.; Grahl, M.; Green, J.; Grosman, A.; Grote, H.; Gruca, M.; Guerard, C.; Haiduk, L.; Han, X.; Harberts, F.; Harris, J. H.; Hartfuß, H. J.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Hein, B.; Heinemann, B.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Henneberg, S.; Hennig, C.; Hernandez Sanchez, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Hölbe, H.; Hollfeld, K. P.; Hölting, A.; Höschen, D.; Houry, M.; Howard, J.; Huang, X.; Huber, M.; Huber, V.; Hunger, H.; Ida, K.; Ilkei, T.; Illy, S.; Israeli, B.; Ivanov, A.; Jablonski, S.; Jagielski, J.; Jelonnek, J.; Jenzsch, H.; Junghans, P.; Kacmarczyk, J.; Kaliatka, T.; Kallmeyer, J. P.; Kamionka, U.; Karalevicius, R.; Kasahara, H.; Kasparek, W.; Kenmochi, N.; Keunecke, M.; Khilchenko, A.; Kinna, D.; Kleiber, R.; Klinger, T.; Knaup, M.; Kobarg, Th; Köchl, F.; Kolesnichenko, Y.; Könies, A.; Köppen, M.; Koshurinov, J.; Koslowski, R.; Köster, F.; Koziol, R.; Krämer, M.; Krampitz, R.; Kraszewsk, P.; Krawczyk, N.; Kremeyer, T.; Krings, Th; Krom, J.; Krzesinski, G.; Ksiazek, I.; Kubkowska, M.; Kühner, G.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kwak, S.; Lang, R.; Langish, S.; Laube, R.; Lechte, C.; Lennartz, M.; Leonhardt, W.; Lewerentz, L.; Liang, Y.; Linsmeier, Ch; Liu, S.; Lobsien, J. F.; Loesser, D.; Loizu Cisquella, J.; Lore, J.; Lorenz, A.; Losert, M.; Lubyako, L.; Lücke, A.; Lumsdaine, A.; Lutsenko, V.; Majano-Brown, J.; Marchuk, O.; Mardenfeld, M.; Marek, P.; Massidda, S.; Masuzaki, S.; Maurer, D.; McCarthy, K.; McNeely, P.; Meier, A.; Mellein, D.; Mendelevitch, B.; Mertens, Ph; Mikkelsen, D.; Mishchenko, O.; Missal, B.; Mittelstaedt, J.; Mizuuchi, T.; Mollen, A.; Moncada, V.; Mönnich, T.; Morizaki, T.; Munk, R.; Murakami, S.; Musielok, F.; Náfrádi, G.; Nagel, M.; Naujoks, D.; Neilson, H.; Neubauer, O.; Neuner, U.; Ngo, T.; Nocentini, R.; Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J.; Obermayer, S.; Offermanns, G.; Ogawa, K.; Ongena, J.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Orozco, G.; Otte, M.; Pacios Rodriguez, L.; Pan, W.; Panadero, N.; Panadero Alvarez, N.; Panin, A.; Papenfuß, D.; Paqay, S.; Pavone, A.; Pawelec, E.; Pelka, G.; Peng, X.; Perseo, V.; Peterson, B.; Pieper, A.; Pilopp, D.; Pingel, S.; Pisano, F.; Plaum, B.; Plunk, G.; Povilaitis, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Proll, J.; Puiatti, M. E.; Puig Sitjes, A.; Purps, F.; Rack, M.; Récsei, S.; Reiman, A.; Reiter, D.; Remppel, F.; Renard, S.; Riedl, R.; Riemann, J.; Rimkevicius, S.; Riße, K.; Rodatos, A.; Röhlinger, H.; Romé, M.; Rong, P.; Roscher, H. J.; Roth, B.; Rudischhauser, L.; Rummel, K.; Rummel, T.; Runov, A.; Rust, N.; Ryc, L.; Ryosuke, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Samartsev, A.; Sanchez, M.; Sano, F.; Satake, S.; Satheeswaran, G.; Schacht, J.; Schauer, F.; Scherer, T.; Schlaich, A.; Schlüter, K. H.; Schmitt, J.; Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, O.; Schmuck, S.; Schneider, M.; Schneider, W.; Scholz, M.; Scholz, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schröder, M.; Schröder, T.; Schroeder, R.; Schumacher, H.; Schweer, B.; Shanahan, B.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.; Sibilia, M.; Sinha, P.; Siplià, S.; Skodzik, J.; Slaby, C.; Smith, H.; Spiess, W.; Spong, D. A.; Spring, A.; Stadler, R.; Standley, B.; Stephey, L.; Stoneking, M.; Stridde, U.; Sulek, Z.; Surko, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Szabó, V.; Szabolics, T.; Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Tamura, N.; Terra, A.; Terry, J.; Thomas, J.; Thomsen, H.; Thumm, M.; Von Thun, C. P.; Timmermann, D.; Titus, P.; Toi, K.; Travere, J. M.; Traverso, P.; Tretter, J.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tsujimura, T.; Tulipán, S.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Unterberg, B.; Urban, J.; Urbonavicius, E.; Vakulchyk, I.; Valet, S.; Van Millingen, B.; Vela, L.; Velasco, J. L.; Vergote, M.; Vervier, M.; Vianello, N.; Viebke, H.; Vilbrandt, R.; Vorkörper, A.; Wadle, S.; Wagner, F.; Wang, E.; Wang, N.; Warmer, F.; Wegener, L.; Weggen, J.; Wei, Y.; Wendorf, J.; Werner, A.; Wiegel, B.; Wilde, F.; Winkler, E.; Winters, V.; Wolf, S.; Wolowski, J.; Wright, A.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Yokoyama, M.; Zajac, J.; Zarnstorff, M.; Zeitler, A.; Zhang, H.; Zhu, J.; Zilker, M.; Zimbal, A.; Zocco, A.; Zoletnik, S.; Zuin, M.

    In: Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 57, Nr. 10, 102020, 27.07.2017.

    Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    AU - Wolf,R.C.

    AU - Ali,A.

    AU - Alonso,A.

    AU - Baldzuhn,J.

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    PY - 2017/7/27

    Y1 - 2017/7/27

    N2 - After completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initial physics studies during the first operational campaign. Both in helium and hydrogen, plasma breakdown was easily achieved. Gaining experience with plasma vessel conditioning, discharge lengths could be extended gradually. Eventually, discharges lasted up to 6 s, reaching an injected energy of 4 MJ, which is twice the limit originally agreed for the limiter configuration employed during the first operational campaign. At power levels of 4 MW central electron densities reached 3 1019 m-3, central electron temperatures reached values of 7 keV and ion temperatures reached just above 2 keV. Important physics studies during this first operational phase include a first assessment of power balance and energy confinement, ECRH power deposition experiments, 2nd harmonic O-mode ECRH using multi-pass absorption, and current drive experiments using electron cyclotron current drive. As in many plasma discharges the electron temperature exceeds the ion temperature significantly, these plasmas are governed by core electron root confinement showing a strong positive electric field in the plasma centre.

    AB - After completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initial physics studies during the first operational campaign. Both in helium and hydrogen, plasma breakdown was easily achieved. Gaining experience with plasma vessel conditioning, discharge lengths could be extended gradually. Eventually, discharges lasted up to 6 s, reaching an injected energy of 4 MJ, which is twice the limit originally agreed for the limiter configuration employed during the first operational campaign. At power levels of 4 MW central electron densities reached 3 1019 m-3, central electron temperatures reached values of 7 keV and ion temperatures reached just above 2 keV. Important physics studies during this first operational phase include a first assessment of power balance and energy confinement, ECRH power deposition experiments, 2nd harmonic O-mode ECRH using multi-pass absorption, and current drive experiments using electron cyclotron current drive. As in many plasma discharges the electron temperature exceeds the ion temperature significantly, these plasmas are governed by core electron root confinement showing a strong positive electric field in the plasma centre.

    KW - current drive

    KW - magnetic confinement

    KW - plasma heating

    KW - stellarator

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85028464686&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d

    DO - 10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d

    M3 - Article

    VL - 57

    JO - Nuclear Fusion

    T2 - Nuclear Fusion

    JF - Nuclear Fusion

    SN - 0029-5515

    IS - 10

    M1 - 102020

    ER -

    Wolf RC, Ali A, Alonso A, Baldzuhn J, Beidler C, Beurskens M et al. Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. Nuclear Fusion. 2017 jul 27;57(10). 102020. Beschikbaar vanaf, DOI: 10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d