Low-complexity soft decision detection for combating DFE burst errors in IM/DD links

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review


The deployment of non-binary pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and soft decision (SD)-forward error correction (FEC) in future intensity-modulation (IM)/direct-detection (DD) links is inevitable. However, high-speed IM/DD links suffer from inter-symbol interference (ISI) due to bandwidth-limited hardware. Traditional approaches to mitigate the effects of ISI are filters and trellis-based algorithms targeting symbol-wise maximum a posteriori (MAP) detection. The former approach includes decision-feedback equalizer (DFE), and the latter includes Max-Log-MAP (MLM) and soft-output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA). Although DFE is easy to implement, it introduces error propagation (EP). Such burst errors distort the log-likelihood ratios (LLRs) required by SD-FEC, causing performance degradation. On the other hand, MLM and SOVA provide near-optimum performance, but their complexity is very high for high-order PAM. In this paper, we consider a one-tap partial response channel model, which is relevant for high-speed IM/DD links. We propose to combine DFE with either MLM or SOVA in a low-complexity architecture. The key idea is to allow MLM or SOVA to detect only $3$ typical DFE symbol errors, and use the detected error information to generate LLRs in a modified demapper. The proposed structure enables a tradeoff between complexity and performance: (i) the complexity of MLM or SOVA is reduced and (ii) the decoding penalty due to EP is mitigated. Compared to SOVA detection, the proposed scheme can achieve a significant complexity reduction of up to $94\%$ for PAM-$8$ transmission. Simulation and experimental results show that the resulting SNR loss is roughly $0.3\sim0.4$ dB for PAM-$4$, and becomes marginal $0.18$ dB for PAM-$8$.

Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)1395-1408
Aantal pagina's14
TijdschriftJournal of Lightwave Technology
Nummer van het tijdschrift5
Vroegere onlinedatum16 okt. 2023
StatusGepubliceerd - 1 mrt. 2024

Bibliografische nota

Publisher Copyright:
© 1983-2012 IEEE.


The work of Alex Alvarado was supported by the European Research Council (ERC) through the European Union s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement 757791. This work was supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research through the VIDI Grant ICONIC under Grant 15685

European Union’s Horizon Europe research and innovation programme757791
European Research Council
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek15685


    Duik in de onderzoeksthema's van 'Low-complexity soft decision detection for combating DFE burst errors in IM/DD links'. Samen vormen ze een unieke vingerafdruk.

    Citeer dit