Recently a novel photonic integration technology, based on a thin InP-based membrane, is emerging. This technology offers monolithic integration of active and passive functions in a sub-micron thick membrane. The enhanced optical confinement in the membrane results in ultracompact active and passive devices. The membrane also enables approaches to converge with electronics. It has shown high potential in breaking the speed, energy and density bottlenecks in conventional photonic integration technologies. This paper explains the concept of the InP membrane, discusses the versatility of various technology approaches and reviews the recent advancement in this field.