We report single crystal phase and non-tapered wurtzite (WZ) and zincblende twinning superlattice (ZB TSL) InP nanowires (NWs). The NWs are grown in a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor using the vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) mechanism and in situ etching with HCl at a high growth temperature. Our stacking fault-free WZ and ZB TSL NWs allow access to the fundamental properties of both NW crystal structures, whose optical and electronic behaviors are often screened by polytypism or incorporated impurities. The WZ NWs show no acceptor-related emission, implying that the VLS-grown NW is almost free of impurities due to sidewall removal by HCl. They only emit light at the free exciton (1.491 eV) and the donor bound exciton transition (1.4855 eV). The ZB NWs exhibit a photoluminescence spectrum being unaffected by the twinning planes. Surprisingly, the acceptor-related emission in the ZB NWs can be almost completely removed by etching away the impurity-contaminated sidewall grown via a vapor–solid mechanism.