Full-field hygroscopic characterization of paper inter-fiber bonds and the implications on network hygro-expansivity

Niels Vonk, Ron Peerlings, Marc Geers, Johan Hoefnagels (Corresponding author)

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Samenvatting

The state-of-the-art in paper micro-mechanics calls for novel experimental data covering the full-field hygro-expansion of inter-fiber bonds, i.e., the 3D morphological changes and inter-fiber interactions. Therefore, a recently developed full-field single fiber hygro-expansion measurement methodology based on global digital height correlation is extended to orthogonal inter-fiber bonds, to investigate their full-field quasi-3D hygroscopic behavior. A sample holder has been developed which enables the quasi-3D characterization of the initial geometry of individual inter-fiber bonds, including the fiber thickness and width along the length of the fibers as well as the degree of wrap around and contact area of the bond, which are vital for understanding the inter-fiber bond hygro-mechanics. Full-field hygroscopic testing reveals the inter-fiber interactions: (i) the transverse hygro-expansion of each fiber strongly reduces when approaching the bonded area, due to the significantly lower longitudinal hygro-expansion of the other bonded fiber. (ii) The relatively large transverse strain of one fiber stretches the other crossing fiber in its longitudinal direction, thereby significantly contributing to the sheet scale hygro-expansion. (iii) Out-of-plane bending is observed in the bonded region which is driven by the significant difference in transverse and longitudinal hygro-expansion of, respectively, the top and bottom fiber constituting the bond. A bi-layer laminate model is employed to rationalize the bending deformation and an adequate match is found with the experimental data. Under the assumption of zero bending, which represents constrained inter-fiber bonds inside a paper sheet, the model can predict the contribution of the transverse strain in the bonded regions to the sheet-scale hygro-expansion.

Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)567-586
Aantal pagina's20
TijdschriftCellulose
Volume31
Nummer van het tijdschrift1
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - jan. 2024

Bibliografische nota

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Financiering

This work is part of an Industrial Partnership Programme (i43-FIP) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). This research programme is co-financed by Canon Production Printing, University of Twente, Eindhoven University of Technology.

FinanciersFinanciernummer
Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek

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