Electrochemistry of sputtered hematite photoanodes: a comparison of metallic DC versus reactive RF sputtering

Rochan Sinha, Reinoud Lavrijsen, Marcel A. Verheijen, Erwin Zoethout, Han Genuit, Mauritius C.M. van de Sanden, Anja Bieberle-Hütter (Corresponding author)

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The water splitting activity of hematite is sensitive to the film processing parameters due to limiting factors such as a short hole diffusion length, slow oxygen evolution kinetics, and poor light absorptivity. In this work, we use direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering as a fast and cost-effective route to deposit metallic iron thin films, which are annealed in air to obtain well-adhering hematite thin films on F:SnO2-coated glass substrates. These films are compared to annealed hematite films, which are deposited by reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, which is usually used for depositing metal oxide thin films, but displays an order of magnitude lower deposition rate. We find that DC sputtered films have much higher photoelectrochemical activity than reactive RF sputtered films. We show that this is related to differences in the morphology and surface composition of the films as a result of the different processing parameters. This in turn results in faster oxygen evolution kinetics and lower surface and bulk recombination effects. Thus, fabricating hematite thin films by fast and cost-efficient metallic iron deposition using DC magnetron sputtering is shown to be a valid and industrially relevant route for hematite photoanode fabrication.

Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)9262-9270
Aantal pagina's9
TijdschriftACS Omega
Volume4
Nummer van het tijdschrift5
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 28 mei 2019

Vingerafdruk

Hematite
Electrochemistry
Sputtering
Magnetron sputtering
Thin films
Iron
Oxygen
Kinetics
Processing
Deposition rates
Surface structure
Oxide films
ferric oxide
Costs
Deposits
Metals
Fabrication
Glass
Water
Substrates

Citeer dit

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title = "Electrochemistry of sputtered hematite photoanodes: a comparison of metallic DC versus reactive RF sputtering",
abstract = "The water splitting activity of hematite is sensitive to the film processing parameters due to limiting factors such as a short hole diffusion length, slow oxygen evolution kinetics, and poor light absorptivity. In this work, we use direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering as a fast and cost-effective route to deposit metallic iron thin films, which are annealed in air to obtain well-adhering hematite thin films on F:SnO2-coated glass substrates. These films are compared to annealed hematite films, which are deposited by reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, which is usually used for depositing metal oxide thin films, but displays an order of magnitude lower deposition rate. We find that DC sputtered films have much higher photoelectrochemical activity than reactive RF sputtered films. We show that this is related to differences in the morphology and surface composition of the films as a result of the different processing parameters. This in turn results in faster oxygen evolution kinetics and lower surface and bulk recombination effects. Thus, fabricating hematite thin films by fast and cost-efficient metallic iron deposition using DC magnetron sputtering is shown to be a valid and industrially relevant route for hematite photoanode fabrication.",
author = "Rochan Sinha and Reinoud Lavrijsen and Verheijen, {Marcel A.} and Erwin Zoethout and Han Genuit and {van de Sanden}, {Mauritius C.M.} and Anja Bieberle-H{\"u}tter",
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Electrochemistry of sputtered hematite photoanodes : a comparison of metallic DC versus reactive RF sputtering. / Sinha, Rochan; Lavrijsen, Reinoud; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Zoethout, Erwin; Genuit, Han; van de Sanden, Mauritius C.M.; Bieberle-Hütter, Anja (Corresponding author).

In: ACS Omega, Vol. 4, Nr. 5, 28.05.2019, blz. 9262-9270.

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

TY - JOUR

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AU - Sinha, Rochan

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AU - Verheijen, Marcel A.

AU - Zoethout, Erwin

AU - Genuit, Han

AU - van de Sanden, Mauritius C.M.

AU - Bieberle-Hütter, Anja

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