The measurement of distance plays an integral part in many aspects of modern societies. In this paper an integrated mode-locked laser on a chip is used for distance measurement based on mode-resolved interferometry. The emission from the on-chip source with a repetition rate of 2.5 GHz and a spectral bandwidth of 3 nm is coupled into a Michelson interferometer. The interferometer output is recorded as a spectral interferogram, which is captured in a single camera image. The images are analyzed using Hilbert transform to extract the distance. The distance derived shows a deviation of 6 \mum from the reference, for a distance up to 25 mm. We also demonstrate interferometry with repetition frequency sweep which can also be used with the source. Performance is expected to be better in the near future with the rapid developments in the field of on-chip laser sources which are demonstrating larger spectral widths and coherence lengths.