Objective. Monitoring of apnea of prematurity, performed in neonatal intensive care units by detecting central apneas (CAs) in the respiratory traces, is characterized by a high number of false alarms. A two-step approach consisting of a threshold-based apneic event detection algorithm followed by a machine learning model was recently presented in literature aiming to improve CA detection. However, since this is characterized by high complexity and low precision, we developed a new direct approach that only consists of a detection model based on machine learning directly working with multichannel signals. Approach. The dataset used in this study consisted of 48 h of ECG, chest impedance and peripheral oxygen saturation extracted from 10 premature infants. CAs were labeled by two clinical experts. 47 features were extracted from time series using 30 s moving windows with an overlap of 5 s and evaluated in sets of 4 consecutive moving windows, in a similar way to what was indicated for the two-step approach. An undersampling method was used to reduce imbalance in the training set while aiming at increasing precision. A detection model using logistic regression with elastic net penalty and leave-one-patient-out cross-validation was then tested on the full dataset. Main results. This detection model returned a mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value equal to 0.86 and, after the selection of a FPR equal to 0.1 and the use of smoothing, an increased precision (0.50 versus 0.42) at the expense of a decrease in recall (0.70 versus 0.78) compared to the two-step approach around suspected apneic events. Significance. The new direct approach guaranteed correct detections for more than 81% of CAs with length L≥ 20 s, which are considered among the most threatening apneic events for premature infants. These results require additional verifications using more extensive datasets but could lead to promising applications in clinical practice.

Originele taal-2Engels
Aantal pagina's19
TijdschriftPhysiological Measurement
Nummer van het tijdschrift2
Vroegere onlinedatum25 jan. 2024
StatusGepubliceerd - feb. 2024


This study was done within the framework of the Eindhoven MedTech Innovation Center (e/MTIC) which is a collaboration between Eindhoven University of Technology, Philips Research, and Máxima Medical Center. This study is a result of the ALARM project funded by the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO) grant No. 15345.

Maxima Medical Centre
Philips Research Americas
Technische Universiteit Eindhoven
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek15345


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