Deep Learning Synthesis of White-Blood From Dark-Blood Late Gadolinium Enhancement Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

Tim J.M. Jaspers, Bibi Martens, Richard Crawley, Jada Lamis, Sina Amirrajab, Marcel Breeuwer, Robert J. Holtackers, Amedeo Chiribiri, Cian Scannell

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

Samenvatting

Objectives
Dark-blood late gadolinium enhancement (DB-LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance has been proposed as an alternative to standard white-blood LGE (WB-LGE) imaging protocols to enhance scar-to-blood contrast without compromising scar-to-myocardium contrast. In practice, both DB and WB contrasts may have clinical utility, but acquiring both has the drawback of additional acquisition time. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a deep learning method to generate synthetic WB-LGE images from DB-LGE, allowing the assessment of both contrasts without additional scan time.

Materials and Methods
DB-LGE and WB-LGE data from 215 patients were used to train 2 types of unpaired image-to-image translation deep learning models, cycle-consistent generative adversarial network (CycleGAN) and contrastive unpaired translation, with 5 different loss function hyperparameter settings each. Initially, the best hyperparameter setting was determined for each model type based on the Fréchet inception distance and the visual assessment of expert readers. Then, the CycleGAN and contrastive unpaired translation models with the optimal hyperparameters were directly compared. Finally, with the best model chosen, the quantification of scar based on the synthetic WB-LGE images was compared with the truly acquired WB-LGE.

Results
The CycleGAN architecture for unpaired image-to-image translation was found to provide the most realistic synthetic WB-LGE images from DB-LGE images. The results showed that it was difficult for visual readers to distinguish if an image was true or synthetic (55% correctly classified). In addition, scar burden quantification with the synthetic data was highly correlated with the analysis of the truly acquired images. Bland-Altman analysis found a mean bias in percentage scar burden between the quantification of the real WB and synthetic white-blood images of 0.44% with limits of agreement from −10.85% to 11.74%. The mean image quality of the real WB images (3.53/5) was scored higher than the synthetic white-blood images (3.03), P = 0.009.

Conclusions
This study proposed a CycleGAN model to generate synthetic WB-LGE from DB-LGE images to allow assessment of both image contrasts without additional scan time. This work represents a clinically focused assessment of synthetic medical images generated by artificial intelligence, a topic with significant potential for a multitude of applications. However, further evaluation is warranted before clinical adoption.
Originele taal-2Engels
TijdschriftInvestigative Radiology
VolumeXX
Nummer van het tijdschriftX
DOI's
StatusE-publicatie vóór gedrukte publicatie - 1 mei 2024

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