Curing and percolation for carbon black-epoxy-amine nanocomposites

T.H. Wu, A. Foyet, A. Kodentsov, L.G.J. van der Ven, R.A.T.M. van Benthem, G. de With (Corresponding author)

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

1 Downloads (Pure)

Uittreksel

Particle agglomeration in carbon black (CB) filled epoxy (CB-E) and carbon black filled epoxy-amine (CB-EA) nanocomposites with CB concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.25 vol% was investigated by performing conductivity measurements as a function of time at 20 °C. For the thermoplastic CB-E samples the change in conductivity was not pronounced, while for the thermosetting CB-EA samples a percolation transition was observed appearing at ≅ 0.2 vol%. The concentration 1.25 vol% was selected for both CB-E and CB-EA samples to perform in situ isothermal electrical conductivity measurements at 20, 50, 70, and 100 °C, respectively. At higher temperature, the agglomeration process was faster, resulting in an initially sharp increase of conductivity. Despite the conductivity development of CB-EA samples being faster than that of CB-E samples, they are reaching lower final conductivity values, indicating that cluster aggregation for the CB-EA samples is restricted by polymer gelation, as confirmed by scanning and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, thermodynamic DSC studies showed that no particle-particle and particle-polymer chemical reactions occurred during the epoxy-amine curing. However, physical adsorption of the epoxy and amine components on the CB particles is the likely cause for the observed slightly higher amine-epoxy reaction rates in the presence of CB. Particle agglomeration is thereby attributed to be controlled by diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA). Finally, the microstructures of CB-EA samples after curing were investigated by using TEM. The fractal dimension df was determined and showed a smaller value as compared to the universal DLCA value, illustrating the influence of gelation on fractal formation in this system.

Originele taal-2Engels
Artikelnummer107672
Aantal pagina's8
TijdschriftComposites Science and Technology
Volume181
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 8 sep 2019

Vingerafdruk

Soot
Carbon black
Amines
Curing
Nanocomposites
Agglomeration
Gelation
Differential scanning calorimetry
Polymers
Fractal dimension
Fractals
Thermoplastics
Reaction rates

Citeer dit

@article{356c4bc867c640529102cb208e6f445c,
title = "Curing and percolation for carbon black-epoxy-amine nanocomposites",
abstract = "Particle agglomeration in carbon black (CB) filled epoxy (CB-E) and carbon black filled epoxy-amine (CB-EA) nanocomposites with CB concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.25 vol{\%} was investigated by performing conductivity measurements as a function of time at 20 °C. For the thermoplastic CB-E samples the change in conductivity was not pronounced, while for the thermosetting CB-EA samples a percolation transition was observed appearing at ≅ 0.2 vol{\%}. The concentration 1.25 vol{\%} was selected for both CB-E and CB-EA samples to perform in situ isothermal electrical conductivity measurements at 20, 50, 70, and 100 °C, respectively. At higher temperature, the agglomeration process was faster, resulting in an initially sharp increase of conductivity. Despite the conductivity development of CB-EA samples being faster than that of CB-E samples, they are reaching lower final conductivity values, indicating that cluster aggregation for the CB-EA samples is restricted by polymer gelation, as confirmed by scanning and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, thermodynamic DSC studies showed that no particle-particle and particle-polymer chemical reactions occurred during the epoxy-amine curing. However, physical adsorption of the epoxy and amine components on the CB particles is the likely cause for the observed slightly higher amine-epoxy reaction rates in the presence of CB. Particle agglomeration is thereby attributed to be controlled by diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA). Finally, the microstructures of CB-EA samples after curing were investigated by using TEM. The fractal dimension df was determined and showed a smaller value as compared to the universal DLCA value, illustrating the influence of gelation on fractal formation in this system.",
keywords = "Curing, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Electrical properties, Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs)",
author = "T.H. Wu and A. Foyet and A. Kodentsov and {van der Ven}, L.G.J. and {van Benthem}, R.A.T.M. and {de With}, G.",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.05.029",
language = "English",
volume = "181",
journal = "Composites Science and Technology",
issn = "0266-3538",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Curing and percolation for carbon black-epoxy-amine nanocomposites. / Wu, T.H.; Foyet, A.; Kodentsov, A.; van der Ven, L.G.J.; van Benthem, R.A.T.M.; de With, G. (Corresponding author).

In: Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 181, 107672, 08.09.2019.

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Curing and percolation for carbon black-epoxy-amine nanocomposites

AU - Wu, T.H.

AU - Foyet, A.

AU - Kodentsov, A.

AU - van der Ven, L.G.J.

AU - van Benthem, R.A.T.M.

AU - de With, G.

PY - 2019/9/8

Y1 - 2019/9/8

N2 - Particle agglomeration in carbon black (CB) filled epoxy (CB-E) and carbon black filled epoxy-amine (CB-EA) nanocomposites with CB concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.25 vol% was investigated by performing conductivity measurements as a function of time at 20 °C. For the thermoplastic CB-E samples the change in conductivity was not pronounced, while for the thermosetting CB-EA samples a percolation transition was observed appearing at ≅ 0.2 vol%. The concentration 1.25 vol% was selected for both CB-E and CB-EA samples to perform in situ isothermal electrical conductivity measurements at 20, 50, 70, and 100 °C, respectively. At higher temperature, the agglomeration process was faster, resulting in an initially sharp increase of conductivity. Despite the conductivity development of CB-EA samples being faster than that of CB-E samples, they are reaching lower final conductivity values, indicating that cluster aggregation for the CB-EA samples is restricted by polymer gelation, as confirmed by scanning and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, thermodynamic DSC studies showed that no particle-particle and particle-polymer chemical reactions occurred during the epoxy-amine curing. However, physical adsorption of the epoxy and amine components on the CB particles is the likely cause for the observed slightly higher amine-epoxy reaction rates in the presence of CB. Particle agglomeration is thereby attributed to be controlled by diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA). Finally, the microstructures of CB-EA samples after curing were investigated by using TEM. The fractal dimension df was determined and showed a smaller value as compared to the universal DLCA value, illustrating the influence of gelation on fractal formation in this system.

AB - Particle agglomeration in carbon black (CB) filled epoxy (CB-E) and carbon black filled epoxy-amine (CB-EA) nanocomposites with CB concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.25 vol% was investigated by performing conductivity measurements as a function of time at 20 °C. For the thermoplastic CB-E samples the change in conductivity was not pronounced, while for the thermosetting CB-EA samples a percolation transition was observed appearing at ≅ 0.2 vol%. The concentration 1.25 vol% was selected for both CB-E and CB-EA samples to perform in situ isothermal electrical conductivity measurements at 20, 50, 70, and 100 °C, respectively. At higher temperature, the agglomeration process was faster, resulting in an initially sharp increase of conductivity. Despite the conductivity development of CB-EA samples being faster than that of CB-E samples, they are reaching lower final conductivity values, indicating that cluster aggregation for the CB-EA samples is restricted by polymer gelation, as confirmed by scanning and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, thermodynamic DSC studies showed that no particle-particle and particle-polymer chemical reactions occurred during the epoxy-amine curing. However, physical adsorption of the epoxy and amine components on the CB particles is the likely cause for the observed slightly higher amine-epoxy reaction rates in the presence of CB. Particle agglomeration is thereby attributed to be controlled by diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA). Finally, the microstructures of CB-EA samples after curing were investigated by using TEM. The fractal dimension df was determined and showed a smaller value as compared to the universal DLCA value, illustrating the influence of gelation on fractal formation in this system.

KW - Curing

KW - Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

KW - Electrical properties

KW - Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs)

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85067026165&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.05.029

DO - 10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.05.029

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85067026165

VL - 181

JO - Composites Science and Technology

JF - Composites Science and Technology

SN - 0266-3538

M1 - 107672

ER -