Clinical Trial Protocol: Developing an Image Classification Algorithm for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis on Three-dimensional Multiparametric Transrectal Ultrasound

Auke Jager (Corresponding author), Arnoud W. Postema, Massimo Mischi, Hessel Wijkstra, Harrie P. Beerlage, Jorg R. Oddens

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftTijdschriftartikelAcademicpeer review


Introduction and hypothesis: The tendency toward population-based screening programs for prostate cancer (PCa) is expected to increase demand for prebiopsy imaging. This study hypothesizes that a machine learning image classification algorithm for three-dimensional multiparametric transrectal prostate ultrasound (3D mpUS) can detect PCa accurately. Design: This is a phase 2 prospective multicenter diagnostic accuracy study. A total of 715 patients will be included in a period of approximately 2 yr. Patients are eligible in case of suspected PCa for which prostate biopsy is indicated or in case of biopsy-proven PCa for which radical prostatectomy (RP) will be performed. Exclusion criteria are prior treatment for PCa or contraindications for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). Protocol overview: Study participants will undergo 3D mpUS, consisting of 3D grayscale, 4D contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and 3D shear wave elastography (SWE). Whole-mount RP histopathology will provide the ground truth to train the image classification algorithm. Patients included prior to prostate biopsy will be used for subsequent preliminary validation. There is a small, anticipated risk for participants associated with the administration of a UCA. Informed consent has to be given prior to study participation, and (serious) adverse events will be reported. Statistical analysis: The primary outcome will be the diagnostic performance of the algorithm for detecting clinically significant PCa (csPCa) on a per-voxel and a per-microregion level. Diagnostic performance will be reported as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Clinically significant PCa is defined as the International Society of Urological grade group ≥2. Full-mount RP histopathology will be used as the reference standard. Secondary outcomes will be sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value for csPCa on a per-patient level, evaluated in patients included prior to prostate biopsy, using biopsy results as the reference standard. A further analysis will be performed on the ability of the algorithm to differentiate between low-, intermediate-, and high-risk tumors. Discussion and summary: This study aims to develop an ultrasound-based imaging modality for PCa detection. Subsequent head-to-head validation trials with magnetic resonance imaging have to be performed in order to determine its role in clinical practice for risk stratification in patients suspected for PCa.

Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)32-43
Aantal pagina's12
TijdschriftEuropean Urology Open Science
StatusGepubliceerd - mrt. 2023

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© 2023 Amsterdam University Medical Centers


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