PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One aim in bone tissue engineering is to develop human cell-based, 3D in vitro bone models to study bone physiology and pathology. Due to the heterogeneity of cells among patients, patient's own cells are needed to be obtained, ideally, from one single cell source. This review attempts to identify the appropriate cell sources for development of such models.
RECENT FINDINGS: Bone marrow and peripheral blood are considered as suitable sources for extraction of osteoblast/osteocyte and osteoclast progenitor cells. Recent studies on these cell sources have shown no significant differences between isolated progenitor cells. However, various parameters such as medium composition affect the cell's proliferation and differentiation potential which could make the peripheral blood-derived stem cells superior to the ones from bone marrow. Peripheral blood can be considered a suitable source for osteoblast/osteocyte and osteoclast progenitor cells, being less invasive for the patient. However, more investigations are needed focusing on extraction and differentiation of both cell types from the same donor sample of peripheral blood.