The investigation and quantification of cardiac movement is important for assessment of cardiac abnormalities and treatment effectiveness. Therefore we consider new aperture problem-free methods to track cardiac motion from 2-dimensional MR tagged images and corresponding sine-phase images. Tracking is achieved by following the movement of scale-space maxima, yielding a sparse set of linear features of the unknown optic flow vector field. Interpolation/reconstruction of the velocity field is then carried out by minimizing an energy functional which is a Sobolev-norm expressed in covariant derivatives (rather than standard derivatives). These covariant derivatives are used to express prior knowledge about the velocity field in the variational framework employed. They are defined on a fiber bundle where sections coincide with vector fields. Furthermore, the optic flow vector field is decomposed in a divergence free and a rotation free part, using our multi-scale Helmholtz decomposition algorithm that combines diffusion and Helmholtz decomposition in a single non-singular analytic kernel operator. Finally, we combine this multi-scale Helmholtz decomposition with vector field reconstruction (based on covariant derivatives) in a single algorithm and present some experiments of cardiac motion estimation. Further experiments on phantom data with ground truth show that both the inclusion of covariant derivatives and the inclusion of the multi-scale Helmholtz decomposition improves the optic flow reconstruction.
|ISSN van geprinte versie||0926-4507|