The aim of this work is to reproduce the experimentally measured linear dependence of cardiac muscle oxygen consumption on stress–strain area using a model, composed of a three-state Huxley-type model for cross-bridge interaction and a phenomenological model of Ca2+-induced activation. By selecting particular cross-bridge cycling rate constants and modifying the cross-bridge activation model, we replicated the linear dependence between oxygen consumption and stress–strain area together with other important mechanical properties of cardiac muscle such as developed stress dependence on the sarcomere length and force-velocity relationship. The model predicts that (1) the amount of the "passenger" cross bridges, i.e., cross bridges that detach without hydrolyzing ATP molecule, is relatively small and (2) ATP consumption rate profile within a beat and the amount of the passenger cross bridges depend on the contraction protocol.
Vendelin, M., Bovendeerd, P. H. M., Arts, M. G. J., Engelbrecht, J., & Campen, van, D. H. (2000). Cardiac mechanoenergetics replicated by cross-bridge model. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 28(6), 629-640. https://doi.org/10.1114/1.1305910