Bound and free water distribution in wood during water uptake and drying as measured by 1D magnetic resonance imaging

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Knowledge on moisture transport in wood is important for understanding its utilization, durability and product quality. Moisture transport processes in wood can be studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging. By combining NMR imaging with relaxometry, the state of water within wood can be identified, i.e. water bound to the cell wall, and free water in the cell lumen/vessel. This paper presents how the transport of water can be monitored and quantified in terms of bound and free water during water uptake and drying. Three types of wood from softwood to hardwood were selected covering a range of low to high density wood; pine sapwood and oak and teak. A calibration is performed to determine the different water states in each different wood type and to convert the NMR signal into moisture content. For all wood types, water transport appeared to be internally limited during both uptake and drying. In case of water uptake, free water was observed only after the cell walls were saturated with bound water. In case of drying, the loss of bound water starts only after vanishing of free water, irrespective of the position. Obviously, there is always a local thermodynamic equilibrium of bound and free water for both uptake and drying. Finally, we determined the effective diffusion coefficient (Deff). Experimentally determined diffusion constants were compared with those derived by the diffusion models for conceptual understanding of transport mechanism. We found that diffusion in the cell wall fibers plays a critical role in the transport process.
Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)535-553
Aantal pagina's19
TijdschriftCellulose
Volume24
Nummer van het tijdschrift2
Vroegere onlinedatum26 dec 2016
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 1 feb 2017

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