Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, plays an important role in the etiol. of a variety of diseases, including cancer. Visualization of apoptosis would allow both early detection of therapy efficiency and evaluation of disease progression. To that aim the authors developed a novel annexin A5-conjugated bimodal nanoparticle. The nanoparticle is composed of a quantum dot that is encapsulated in a paramagnetic micelle to enable its use both for optical imaging and MRI. Multiple recombinant human annexin A5 protein mols. were covalently coupled to the nanoparticle for targeting. In this study the specificity of the annexin A5-conjugated nanoparticles for apoptotic cells was demonstrated both with fluorescence microscopy and MRI, which confirms its potential for the detection of apoptosis with both imaging modalities in vivo.