Angular dispersion of radio waves in mobile channels

M.R.J.A.E. Kwakkernaat

    Onderzoeksoutput: ScriptieDissertatie 1 (Onderzoek TU/e / Promotie TU/e)Academic

    Uittreksel

    Multi-antenna techniques are an important solution for significantly increasing the bandwidth efficiency of mobile wireless data transmission systems. Effective and reliable design of these multi-antenna systems requires thorough knowledge of radiowave propagation in the urban environment. The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to obtain a better physical understanding of radiowave propagation in mobile radio channels in order to provide a basis for the improvement of radiowave propagation prediction techniques for urban environments using knowledge from 3-D propagation experiments and simulations combined with space-wave modelling. In particular, the work focusses on: the development of an advanced 3-D mobile channel sounding system, obtaining propagation measurement data from mobile radio propagation experiments, the analysis of measured data and the modelling of angular dispersive scattering effects for the improvement of deterministic propagation prediction models. The first part of the study presents the design, implementation and verification of a wideband high-resolution measurement system for the characterisation of angular dispersion in mobile channels. The system uses complex impulse response data obtained from a novel 3-D tilted-cross switched antenna array as input to an improved version of 3-D Unitary ESPRIT. It is capable of characterising the delay and angular properties of physically-nonstationary radio channels at moderate urban speeds with high resolution in both azimuth and elevation. For the first time, omnidirectional video data that were captured during the measurements are used in combination with the measurement results to accurately identify and relate the received radio waves directly to the actual environment while moving through it. The second part of the study presents the results of experiments in which the highresolution measurement system, described in the first part, is used in several mobile outdoor experiments in different scenarios. The objective of these measurements was to gain more knowledge in order to improve the understanding of radiowave propagation. From these results the dispersive effects in the angular domain, caused by rough building surfaces and other irregular structures was paid particular attention. These effects not only influence the total amount of received power in dense urban environments, but can also have a large impact on the performance and deployment of multi-antenna systems. To improve the data representation and support further data analysis a hierarchical clustering method is presented that can successfully identify clusters of multipath signal components in multidimensional data. By using the data obtained from an omnidirectional video camera the clusters can be related directly to the environment and the scattering effects of specific objects can be isolated. These results are important in order to improve and calibrate deterministic propagation models. In the third part of the study a new method is presented to account for the angular dispersion caused by irregular surfaces in ray-tracing based propagation prediction models. The method is based on assigning an effective roughness to specific surfaces. Unlike the conventional reflection reduction factor for Gaussian surfaces, that only reduces the ray power, the new method also distributes power in the angular domain. The results of clustered measurement data are used to calibrated the model and show that this leads to improved channel representations that are better matched to the real-world channel behavior.
    TaalEngels
    KwalificatieDoctor in de Filosofie
    Toekennende instantie
    • Faculteit Electrical Engineering
    Begeleider(s)/adviseur
    • Fledderus, Erik, Promotor
    • Kürner, T., Promotor, Externe Persoon
    • Herben, Matti, Co-Promotor
    Datum van toekenning10 dec 2008
    Plaats van publicatieEindhoven
    Uitgever
    Gedrukte ISBN's9789038614700
    DOI's
    StatusGepubliceerd - 2008

    Vingerafdruk

    Radio waves
    Radio transmission
    Antennas
    Experiments
    Scattering
    Ray tracing
    Video cameras
    Impulse response
    Antenna arrays
    Data communication systems
    Surface roughness

    Citeer dit

    Kwakkernaat, M. R. J. A. E. (2008). Angular dispersion of radio waves in mobile channels Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven DOI: 10.6100/IR639241
    Kwakkernaat, M.R.J.A.E.. / Angular dispersion of radio waves in mobile channels. Eindhoven : Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2008. 166 blz.
    @phdthesis{8b5b685f980b49608ce031b91086b8fc,
    title = "Angular dispersion of radio waves in mobile channels",
    abstract = "Multi-antenna techniques are an important solution for significantly increasing the bandwidth efficiency of mobile wireless data transmission systems. Effective and reliable design of these multi-antenna systems requires thorough knowledge of radiowave propagation in the urban environment. The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to obtain a better physical understanding of radiowave propagation in mobile radio channels in order to provide a basis for the improvement of radiowave propagation prediction techniques for urban environments using knowledge from 3-D propagation experiments and simulations combined with space-wave modelling. In particular, the work focusses on: the development of an advanced 3-D mobile channel sounding system, obtaining propagation measurement data from mobile radio propagation experiments, the analysis of measured data and the modelling of angular dispersive scattering effects for the improvement of deterministic propagation prediction models. The first part of the study presents the design, implementation and verification of a wideband high-resolution measurement system for the characterisation of angular dispersion in mobile channels. The system uses complex impulse response data obtained from a novel 3-D tilted-cross switched antenna array as input to an improved version of 3-D Unitary ESPRIT. It is capable of characterising the delay and angular properties of physically-nonstationary radio channels at moderate urban speeds with high resolution in both azimuth and elevation. For the first time, omnidirectional video data that were captured during the measurements are used in combination with the measurement results to accurately identify and relate the received radio waves directly to the actual environment while moving through it. The second part of the study presents the results of experiments in which the highresolution measurement system, described in the first part, is used in several mobile outdoor experiments in different scenarios. The objective of these measurements was to gain more knowledge in order to improve the understanding of radiowave propagation. From these results the dispersive effects in the angular domain, caused by rough building surfaces and other irregular structures was paid particular attention. These effects not only influence the total amount of received power in dense urban environments, but can also have a large impact on the performance and deployment of multi-antenna systems. To improve the data representation and support further data analysis a hierarchical clustering method is presented that can successfully identify clusters of multipath signal components in multidimensional data. By using the data obtained from an omnidirectional video camera the clusters can be related directly to the environment and the scattering effects of specific objects can be isolated. These results are important in order to improve and calibrate deterministic propagation models. In the third part of the study a new method is presented to account for the angular dispersion caused by irregular surfaces in ray-tracing based propagation prediction models. The method is based on assigning an effective roughness to specific surfaces. Unlike the conventional reflection reduction factor for Gaussian surfaces, that only reduces the ray power, the new method also distributes power in the angular domain. The results of clustered measurement data are used to calibrated the model and show that this leads to improved channel representations that are better matched to the real-world channel behavior.",
    author = "M.R.J.A.E. Kwakkernaat",
    year = "2008",
    doi = "10.6100/IR639241",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "9789038614700",
    publisher = "Technische Universiteit Eindhoven",
    school = "Department of Electrical Engineering",

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    Kwakkernaat, MRJAE 2008, 'Angular dispersion of radio waves in mobile channels', Doctor in de Filosofie, Faculteit Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven. DOI: 10.6100/IR639241

    Angular dispersion of radio waves in mobile channels. / Kwakkernaat, M.R.J.A.E.

    Eindhoven : Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2008. 166 blz.

    Onderzoeksoutput: ScriptieDissertatie 1 (Onderzoek TU/e / Promotie TU/e)Academic

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    AU - Kwakkernaat,M.R.J.A.E.

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    N2 - Multi-antenna techniques are an important solution for significantly increasing the bandwidth efficiency of mobile wireless data transmission systems. Effective and reliable design of these multi-antenna systems requires thorough knowledge of radiowave propagation in the urban environment. The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to obtain a better physical understanding of radiowave propagation in mobile radio channels in order to provide a basis for the improvement of radiowave propagation prediction techniques for urban environments using knowledge from 3-D propagation experiments and simulations combined with space-wave modelling. In particular, the work focusses on: the development of an advanced 3-D mobile channel sounding system, obtaining propagation measurement data from mobile radio propagation experiments, the analysis of measured data and the modelling of angular dispersive scattering effects for the improvement of deterministic propagation prediction models. The first part of the study presents the design, implementation and verification of a wideband high-resolution measurement system for the characterisation of angular dispersion in mobile channels. The system uses complex impulse response data obtained from a novel 3-D tilted-cross switched antenna array as input to an improved version of 3-D Unitary ESPRIT. It is capable of characterising the delay and angular properties of physically-nonstationary radio channels at moderate urban speeds with high resolution in both azimuth and elevation. For the first time, omnidirectional video data that were captured during the measurements are used in combination with the measurement results to accurately identify and relate the received radio waves directly to the actual environment while moving through it. The second part of the study presents the results of experiments in which the highresolution measurement system, described in the first part, is used in several mobile outdoor experiments in different scenarios. The objective of these measurements was to gain more knowledge in order to improve the understanding of radiowave propagation. From these results the dispersive effects in the angular domain, caused by rough building surfaces and other irregular structures was paid particular attention. These effects not only influence the total amount of received power in dense urban environments, but can also have a large impact on the performance and deployment of multi-antenna systems. To improve the data representation and support further data analysis a hierarchical clustering method is presented that can successfully identify clusters of multipath signal components in multidimensional data. By using the data obtained from an omnidirectional video camera the clusters can be related directly to the environment and the scattering effects of specific objects can be isolated. These results are important in order to improve and calibrate deterministic propagation models. In the third part of the study a new method is presented to account for the angular dispersion caused by irregular surfaces in ray-tracing based propagation prediction models. The method is based on assigning an effective roughness to specific surfaces. Unlike the conventional reflection reduction factor for Gaussian surfaces, that only reduces the ray power, the new method also distributes power in the angular domain. The results of clustered measurement data are used to calibrated the model and show that this leads to improved channel representations that are better matched to the real-world channel behavior.

    AB - Multi-antenna techniques are an important solution for significantly increasing the bandwidth efficiency of mobile wireless data transmission systems. Effective and reliable design of these multi-antenna systems requires thorough knowledge of radiowave propagation in the urban environment. The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to obtain a better physical understanding of radiowave propagation in mobile radio channels in order to provide a basis for the improvement of radiowave propagation prediction techniques for urban environments using knowledge from 3-D propagation experiments and simulations combined with space-wave modelling. In particular, the work focusses on: the development of an advanced 3-D mobile channel sounding system, obtaining propagation measurement data from mobile radio propagation experiments, the analysis of measured data and the modelling of angular dispersive scattering effects for the improvement of deterministic propagation prediction models. The first part of the study presents the design, implementation and verification of a wideband high-resolution measurement system for the characterisation of angular dispersion in mobile channels. The system uses complex impulse response data obtained from a novel 3-D tilted-cross switched antenna array as input to an improved version of 3-D Unitary ESPRIT. It is capable of characterising the delay and angular properties of physically-nonstationary radio channels at moderate urban speeds with high resolution in both azimuth and elevation. For the first time, omnidirectional video data that were captured during the measurements are used in combination with the measurement results to accurately identify and relate the received radio waves directly to the actual environment while moving through it. The second part of the study presents the results of experiments in which the highresolution measurement system, described in the first part, is used in several mobile outdoor experiments in different scenarios. The objective of these measurements was to gain more knowledge in order to improve the understanding of radiowave propagation. From these results the dispersive effects in the angular domain, caused by rough building surfaces and other irregular structures was paid particular attention. These effects not only influence the total amount of received power in dense urban environments, but can also have a large impact on the performance and deployment of multi-antenna systems. To improve the data representation and support further data analysis a hierarchical clustering method is presented that can successfully identify clusters of multipath signal components in multidimensional data. By using the data obtained from an omnidirectional video camera the clusters can be related directly to the environment and the scattering effects of specific objects can be isolated. These results are important in order to improve and calibrate deterministic propagation models. In the third part of the study a new method is presented to account for the angular dispersion caused by irregular surfaces in ray-tracing based propagation prediction models. The method is based on assigning an effective roughness to specific surfaces. Unlike the conventional reflection reduction factor for Gaussian surfaces, that only reduces the ray power, the new method also distributes power in the angular domain. The results of clustered measurement data are used to calibrated the model and show that this leads to improved channel representations that are better matched to the real-world channel behavior.

    U2 - 10.6100/IR639241

    DO - 10.6100/IR639241

    M3 - Phd Thesis 1 (Research TU/e / Graduation TU/e)

    SN - 9789038614700

    PB - Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

    CY - Eindhoven

    ER -

    Kwakkernaat MRJAE. Angular dispersion of radio waves in mobile channels. Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2008. 166 blz. Beschikbaar vanaf, DOI: 10.6100/IR639241