A Design Framework for Beamforming Integrated Circuits Operating at mm-Wave Frequencies

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2 Citaten (Scopus)


In order to cope with the needs of fifth-generation (5G) cellular networks and beyond, phased-array antenna systems operating at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies will be required. This makes the system design very complex. In order to create insight and agility in the design process, we propose a framework that visualises the requirements and trade-offs of 5G-and-beyond systems. Our literature survey uses this framework to compare state-of-the-art papers on Silicon-based beamforming integrated circuits (BFICs) operating in the mm-wave band. Three use-cases are analyzed: Base-stations (BSs), Gateways (GtWs) and User Terminals (UTs). Based on the framework, we explore which implementation fits best with each use-cases. In UT, space and power consumption are the main constraints. For BSs, the main constraint is in output power and noise figure (NF). Finally, in GtW applications there is more flexibility as it has a larger footprint than UT but doesn’t necessarily need to cover the same link-budget constraints of BSs. One of the identified limitations throughout all the cases is the heat generation, which is seen as a major bottleneck in mm-wave phased arrays. Only a few of the references show proper modelling and simulations for heat transfer of the realized BFICs. Finally, a limitation in the BFICs is the output power. In order to realize a mm-wave link at least 13 dBm would be required at the input of each antenna element. Only few references meet this criterion, and only at saturation. Further, in order to achieve more than 13 dBm in back-off operation a higher power density would be required. This would imply a further increase of heat generation in the system.
Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)62232-62240
Aantal pagina's9
TijdschriftIEEE Access
StatusGepubliceerd - 2021

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Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


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