A quadrature fourth-order, continuous-time, S¿ modulator with 1.5-b quantizer and feedback digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for a universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS) receiver chain is presented. It achieves a dynamic range of 70 dB in a 2-MHz bandwidth and the total harmonic distortion is -74 dB at full-scale input. When used in an integrated receiver for UMTS, the dynamic range of the modulator substantially reduces the need for analog automatic gain control and its tolerance of large out-of-band interference also permits the use of only first-order prefiltering. An IC including an I and Q S¿ modulator, phase-locked loop, oscillator, and bandgap dissipates 11.5 mW at 1.8 V. The active area is 0.41 mm2 in a 0.18-µm 1-poly 5-metal CMOS technology.
Veldhoven, van, R. H. M., Minnis, B. J., Hegt, J. A., & Roermund, van, A. H. M. (2002). A 3.3-m W sigma delta modular for UMTS in 0.18- μm CMOS with 70-dB dynamic range in 2-MHz bandwidth. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 37(12), 1645-1652. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2002.804329