Creating a zero energy environment is a hot topic. The developments in this field are based on the concept of the "Trias Energetica": reducing energy consumption, using renewable energy sources, and efficiently using fossil fuels. A zero energy concept can also be applied to road tunnels to improve the energy performance by means of reducing energy consumption, introducing renewable energy generation and thus lowering energy bills. The zero energy tunnel concept is a good approach to make the road tunnel more energy sustainable and environmental friendly. The developments in this field are based on the next aspects: - Sustainability - Health - Economic issues. Road traffic in a tunnel is a source of atmospheric pollution which has to be managed both inside the tunnel to protect users'safety and well-being and outside the tunnel in order to limit the environmental impact. In most of the tunnels in The Netherlands, there is a feedback system so that high concentrations of pollutants inside the tunnel trigger the ventilation to increase the visibility level. The visibility level has a strong relationship with the concentration of dust. These measurements are required by means of tunnel safety standards and not related to the human well-being aspect. There are hardly any examples in the world where the contaminant removal technologies are applied in tunnels for external air quality purposes. The goals of the Zero Energy Tunnel project study are: - To find possible solutions to decrease energy consumption in the tunnel - To investigate innovative solutions to make the tunnel environmental friendly - To implement renewable energy generation and energy storage to make the tunnel a zero energy element - To establish the needed power flow between all the components and medium voltage grid with keeping power quality at an acceptable level - To develop a Zero Energy Tunnel conceptual design. In this study the contribution to the main goals is done by means of reducing energy consumption of tunnel lighting systems; designing air cleaning systems; designing the heat extraction system that utilizes the heat generated by tunnel traffic; and finally designing the renewable energy generation and energy storage to achieve the energy balance on a yearly basis.
|Qualification||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Award date||13 Sep 2012|
|Place of Publication||Eindhoven|
|Publication status||Published - 2012|