Window optimization in isotachophoresis superimposed on capillary zone electrophoresis.

J.L. Beckers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


A sample stacking procedure to which a specific combination of electrolyte solutions is applied is isotachophoresis (ITP) superimposed on capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), a so-called ITP/CZE system. In ITP/CZE some components migrate in an ITP fashion on top of a background electrolyte, and the other analytes migrate in a zone electrophoretic manner. For such a system, the leading electrolyte consists of a mixture of an ionic species, L1, of high mobility (the leading ion of the ITP system), an ionic species, L2, of low mobility (the coions of the CZE system), and a buffering counterionic species, whereas the terminating solution only contains the ionic species L2 and the buffering counterions. The zones of the components migrating in the ITP/CZE mode are sharp owing to the self-correcting properties of the zones and the concentrations of the L1 ions of the system. Mobility windows can be calculated, indicating which ions can migrate in the ITP/CZE mode. In this article mobility windows are calculated by applying both strong and weak acids as L1 and L2 ions and it appears that mobility windows can be optimized by chosing different ratios of L1 and L2 as well as different pH values. It is possible to construct very narrow mobility windows, and thereby choose which component of a sample solution can be concentrated, and to what concentration, in a very selective way. The big advantage of ITP/CZE compared with applications such as transient ITP and transient stacking is that the stacked sample ionic species migrate in the ITP mode during the whole experiment; furthermore, they do not destack. Experimentally obtained electropherograms validate the calculated mobility windows for the ITP/CZE mode.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2788-2796
Number of pages8
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2000


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