Wind-driven rain

B.J.E. Blocken, J.E. Carmeliet

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Wind-driven rain (WDR) is one of the most important moisture sources for building facades (Sanders 1996, Blocken and Carmeliet 2004) and it is expected to become even more important in the future (Sanders and Phillipson 2003, Phillipson and Sanders 2004). Knowledge of the WDR intensity impinging on building facades is essential as a boundary condition for numerical Heat-Air-Moisture (HAM) transfer models that are used to examine the hygrothermal behaviour and the durability of building facade components exposed to the outside climate. WDR research in building physics can be divided into two parts, namely: (1) the assessment of the direct WDR intensity impinging on the building facade and (2) the assessment of the response of the facades to these loads. While the first part focuses on the amount and the distribution of the WDR intensity across building surfaces, the latter part includes the contact and surface phenomena that occur when WDR drops hit the wall. Examples are splashing, absorption, adhesion, runoff and evaporation. In each part, different approaches can be employed: experimental, (semi-) empirical and numerical methods. The state-of-the-art of WDR research in 1996 was reported by Sanders (1996) in the framework of the International Energy Agency Annex 24. Later, a review on WDR research in building physics was composed by Blocken and Carmeliet (2004). These two documents indicated that, although important advances have been made in the past, there is still of lot of work to be done, both concerning WDR impact assessment and especially concerning WDR contact and surface phenomena. This report presents a brief overview of earlier achievements as well as the achievements made during Annex 41.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBoundary conditions and whole building HAM analysis. Annex 41: Whole Building Heat, Air and Moisture Response. Subtask 3
EditorsK. Kumaran, C. Sanders
PublisherAuthors and Exco ECBCS
Number of pages235
ISBN (Print)978-90-334-7059-2
Publication statusPublished - 2008
EventIEA Annex 41 MOIST-ENG Subtask 3: Boundary conditions and whole building HAM Analysis, 2008 -
Duration: 1 Jan 2008 → …


ConferenceIEA Annex 41 MOIST-ENG Subtask 3: Boundary conditions and whole building HAM Analysis, 2008
Period1/01/08 → …


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