Visual discomfort and visual fatigue in stereoscopic displays : a review

M.T.M. Lambooij, W.A. IJsselsteijn, M.F. Fortuin, I.E.J. Heynderickx

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

899 Citations (Scopus)
14 Downloads (Pure)


Visual discomfort has been the subject of considerable research in relation to stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays. In this paper, the importance of various causes and aspects of visual discomfort is clarified. When disparity values do not surpass a limit of 1°, which still provides sufficient range to allow satisfactory depth perception in stereoscopic television, classical determinants such as excessive binocular parallax and accommodation-vergence conflict appear to be of minor importance. Visual discomfort, however, may still occur within this limit and we believe the following factors to be the most pertinent in contributing to this: (1) temporally changing demand of accommodation-vergence linkage, e.g., by fast motion in depth; (2) three-dimensional artifacts resulting from insufficient depth information in the incoming data signal yielding spatial and temporal inconsistencies; and (3) unnatural blur. In order to adequately characterize and understand visual discomfort, multiple types of measurements, both objective and subjective, are required.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Imaging Science and Technology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2009


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