Viewing experience and naturalness of 3D images

P.J.H. Seuntiëns, I.E.J. Heynderickx, W.A. IJsselsteijn, P.M.J. van der Avoort, J. Berentsen, I.J. Dalm, M.T.M. Lambooij, W. Oosting

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Abstract

The term 'image quality' is often used to measure the performance of an imaging system. Recent research showed however that image quality may not be the most appropriate term to capture the evaluative processes associated with experiencing 3D images. The added value of depth in 3D images is clearly recognized when viewers judge image quality of unimpaired 3D images against their 2D counterparts. However, when viewers are asked to rate image quality of impaired 2D and 3D images, the image quality results for both 2D and 3D images are mainly determined by the introduced artefacts, and the addition of depth in the 3D images is hardly accounted for. In this experiment we applied and tested the more general evaluative concepts of 'naturalness' and 'viewing experience'. It was hypothesized that these concepts would better reflect the added value of depth in 3D images. Four scenes were used varying in dimension (2D and 3D) and noise level (6 levels of white gaussian noise). Results showed that both viewing experience and naturalness were rated higher in 3D than in 2D when the same noise level was applied. Thus, the added value of depth is clearly demonstrated when the concepts of viewing experience and naturalness are being evaluated. The added value of 3D over 2D, expressed in noise level, was 2 dB for viewing experience and 4 dB for naturalness, indicating that naturalness appears the more sensitive evaluative concept for demonstrating the psychological impact of 3D displays.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThree dimensional TV, Video, and Display IV, SPIE Optics East, IT 107, Boston, MA
EditorsB. Javidi, F. Okano, J.Y. Son
Place of PublicationBellingham
PublisherSPIE
Pages43-49
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE
Volume6016
ISSN (Print)0277-786X

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Seuntiëns, P. J. H., Heynderickx, I. E. J., IJsselsteijn, W. A., van der Avoort, P. M. J., Berentsen, J., Dalm, I. J., ... Oosting, W. (2005). Viewing experience and naturalness of 3D images. In B. Javidi, F. Okano, & J. Y. Son (Eds.), Three dimensional TV, Video, and Display IV, SPIE Optics East, IT 107, Boston, MA (pp. 43-49). [601605] (Proceedings of SPIE; Vol. 6016). Bellingham: SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.627515
Seuntiëns, P.J.H. ; Heynderickx, I.E.J. ; IJsselsteijn, W.A. ; van der Avoort, P.M.J. ; Berentsen, J. ; Dalm, I.J. ; Lambooij, M.T.M. ; Oosting, W. / Viewing experience and naturalness of 3D images. Three dimensional TV, Video, and Display IV, SPIE Optics East, IT 107, Boston, MA. editor / B. Javidi ; F. Okano ; J.Y. Son. Bellingham : SPIE, 2005. pp. 43-49 (Proceedings of SPIE).
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abstract = "The term 'image quality' is often used to measure the performance of an imaging system. Recent research showed however that image quality may not be the most appropriate term to capture the evaluative processes associated with experiencing 3D images. The added value of depth in 3D images is clearly recognized when viewers judge image quality of unimpaired 3D images against their 2D counterparts. However, when viewers are asked to rate image quality of impaired 2D and 3D images, the image quality results for both 2D and 3D images are mainly determined by the introduced artefacts, and the addition of depth in the 3D images is hardly accounted for. In this experiment we applied and tested the more general evaluative concepts of 'naturalness' and 'viewing experience'. It was hypothesized that these concepts would better reflect the added value of depth in 3D images. Four scenes were used varying in dimension (2D and 3D) and noise level (6 levels of white gaussian noise). Results showed that both viewing experience and naturalness were rated higher in 3D than in 2D when the same noise level was applied. Thus, the added value of depth is clearly demonstrated when the concepts of viewing experience and naturalness are being evaluated. The added value of 3D over 2D, expressed in noise level, was 2 dB for viewing experience and 4 dB for naturalness, indicating that naturalness appears the more sensitive evaluative concept for demonstrating the psychological impact of 3D displays.",
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Seuntiëns, PJH, Heynderickx, IEJ, IJsselsteijn, WA, van der Avoort, PMJ, Berentsen, J, Dalm, IJ, Lambooij, MTM & Oosting, W 2005, Viewing experience and naturalness of 3D images. in B Javidi, F Okano & JY Son (eds), Three dimensional TV, Video, and Display IV, SPIE Optics East, IT 107, Boston, MA., 601605, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 6016, SPIE, Bellingham, pp. 43-49. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.627515

Viewing experience and naturalness of 3D images. / Seuntiëns, P.J.H.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; van der Avoort, P.M.J.; Berentsen, J.; Dalm, I.J.; Lambooij, M.T.M.; Oosting, W.

Three dimensional TV, Video, and Display IV, SPIE Optics East, IT 107, Boston, MA. ed. / B. Javidi; F. Okano; J.Y. Son. Bellingham : SPIE, 2005. p. 43-49 601605 (Proceedings of SPIE; Vol. 6016).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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Seuntiëns PJH, Heynderickx IEJ, IJsselsteijn WA, van der Avoort PMJ, Berentsen J, Dalm IJ et al. Viewing experience and naturalness of 3D images. In Javidi B, Okano F, Son JY, editors, Three dimensional TV, Video, and Display IV, SPIE Optics East, IT 107, Boston, MA. Bellingham: SPIE. 2005. p. 43-49. 601605. (Proceedings of SPIE). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.627515