Vascular risk factors for optical coherence tomography-detected macular cysts: The Maastricht Study

Eline E.B. de Clerck (Corresponding author), Jan S.A.G. Schouten, Tos T.J.M. Berendschot, Fleur Goezinne, Ilona Liesenborghs, Pieter C. Dagnelie, Nicolaas C. Schaper, Abraham A. Kroon, Ronald M.A. Henry, Koen D. Reesink, Miranda T. Schram, Coen D.A. Stehouwer, Carroll A.B. Webers

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Abstract

Purpose
To investigate whether higher blood pressure and greater arterial stiffness are associated with the presence of macular cysts and whether this association is already present in the absence of micro-aneurysms in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.

Methods
Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), we performed a macular volume scan in 2647 individuals (mean age 60 ± 8 years, 50% men, 27% type 2 diabetes). The association between macular cysts and 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and carotid distensibility was assessed by use of logistic regression.

Results
Twenty-four hours systolic blood pressure was associated with the presence of macular cysts [OR = 1.03 (95% CI 1.00–1.05) per 1 mmHg, p = 0.03]. 24 hr pulse pressure [OR = 1.61 (95% CI 1.11–2.34) per 10 mmHg, p = 0.01] and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity [OR = 1.16 (95% CI 1.02–1.32) per 1 m/s, p = 0.02] were associated with macular cysts, while carotid distensibility was not [OR = 1.03 (95% CI 0.96–1.11) per 1.0*10−3/kPa, p = 0.45]. Associations were similar in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes and were already present in the absence of micro-aneurysms.

Conclusion
Twenty-four hours systolic blood pressure, 24 hr pulse pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity are associated with the presence of OCT-detected macular cysts in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, even in the absence of micro-aneurysms. Therefore, blood pressure and aortic stiffness are potential factors contributing to macular cysts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e860-e868
JournalActa Ophthalmologica
Volume99
Issue number6
Early online date30 Nov 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021

Funding

FundersFunder number
Fonds NutsOhra122047

    Keywords

    • macular cysts
    • optical coherence tomography
    • type 2 diabetes
    • vascular risk factors

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