Usable assembly language for GPUs : a success story

D.J. Bernstein, H.-C. Chen, C.M. Cheng, T. Lange, R.F. Niederhagen, P. Schwabe, B.Y. Yang

Research output: Book/ReportReportAcademic


The NVIDIA compilers nvcc and ptxas leave the programmer with only very limited control over register allocation, register spills, instruction selection, and instruction scheduling. In theory a programmer can gain control by writing an entire kernel in van der Laan's cudasm assembly language, but this requires tedious, error-prone tracking of register assignments. This paper introduces a higher-level assembly language, qhasm-cudasm, that allows much faster programming while providing the same amount of control over the GPU. This language has been used successfully to build a 90000-machine-instruction kernel for a computation described in detail in the paper, the largest public cryptanalytic project in history. The best GTX 295 speed that has been obtained for this computation with nvcc and ptxas is 25 million iterations per second; the best GTX 295 speed that has been obtained with qhasm-cudasm is 63 million iterations per second.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Publication series

NameCryptology ePrint Archive


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