Unveiling the Performance of Video Anomaly Detection Models: a Benchmark-based Review

Francisco Caetano (Corresponding author), Pedro Carvalho, Jaime Cardoso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Deep learning has recently gained popularity in the field of video anomaly detection, with the development of various methods for identifying abnormal events in visual data. The growing need for automated systems to monitor video streams for anomalies, such as security breaches and violent behaviours in public areas, requires the development of robust and reliable methods. As a result, there is a need to provide tools to objectively evaluate and compare the real-world performance of different deep learning methods to identify the most effective approach for video anomaly detection. Current state-of-the-art metrics favour weakly-supervised strategies stating these as the best-performing approaches for the task. However, the area under the ROC curve, used to justify this statement, has been shown to be an unreliable metric for highly unbalanced data distributions, as is the case with anomaly detection datasets. This paper provides a new perspective and insights on the performance of video anomaly detection methods. It reports the results of a benchmark study with state-of-the-art methods using a novel proposed framework for evaluating and comparing the different models. The results of this benchmark demonstrate that using the currently employed set of reference metrics led to the misconception that weakly-supervised methods consistently outperform semi-supervised ones.
Original languageEnglish
Article number200236
Number of pages15
JournalIntelligent Systems with Applications
Publication statusPublished - 23 May 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Anomaly detection
  • Benchmark
  • Computer vision
  • Deep learning


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