Unveiling light collection and pump enhancement from quantum wells with plasmonic metasurfaces using power dependent measurements

Mohamed S. Abdelkhalik (Corresponding author), Aleksandr Vaskin, Toni López, Aimi Abass, Jaime Gómez Rivas

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Low light extraction efficiency (LEE) is the greatest limiting factor for the brightness of reduced-size light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as it limits their emission intensity. In addition, LEDs have a Lambertian emission, which requires secondary optics to control the emission directionality. Plasmonic metasurfaces can introduce a way of manipulating the generated light from LEDs to enhance their LEE and steer the emitted light by reshaping the far-field emission. Here, we fabricate resonant plasmonic metasurfaces on top of a typical blue emitting wafer consisting of InGaN/gallium nitride quantum wells developed for commercial LED devices. The metasurface is separated from the InGaN quantum wells by p-GaN and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) layers with a cumulative thickness of 110 nm. Since this distance value is close to the emission wavelength in the corresponding medium, enhanced near-fields of localized plasmonic resonances do not reach the active region. Despite this, we observe a strong influence of the metasurfaces on the far-field photoluminescence emission from the quantum wells as demonstrated by Fourier imaging. Power-dependent excitation measurements of the samples allow us to retrieve the pump and light collection enhancement factors provided by the plasmonic metasurfaces. We demonstrate that the plasmonic metasurfaces can provide a pump enhancement factor of up to 4.1 and a collection enhancement factor of up to 3.2. We have also performed simulations based on the reciprocity principle and achieved a good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

Original languageEnglish
Article number025001
Number of pages9
JournalJPhys Photonics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


This work has been financially supported by the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO), domain Applied and Engineering Sciences (TTW), through Grant no 17100 (NanoLEDs). The authors thank Casper F Schippers for helping to optimize the deposition parameters of Aluminum using an electron beam evaporator.

FundersFunder number
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek17100


    • LEDs
    • light collection enhancement
    • metasurfaces
    • numerical simulations


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